Worldwide forest cover 31% of the land
this figure is not accurate because lots of part of the forest cut. It can be
seem that 8.3 million hectares of forest cut in between 1990-2000.After 2010
6.2 million hectares of forest also loss. Due to deforestation CO2 concentration
also changes. Carbon dioxide is the major of greenhouse gas emission and
World’s tropical forest degrades and cut
due to the emissions of10% carbon at global level. Therefore it’s necessary to
make efforts to control the problem. Some type of traditional efforts apply it
cannot successful and degradation of forest continue. Then REDD establish in
2005 through a proposal from a group of countries including New Guinea, Papua,
and coalition for rainforest. After 2 years this proposal was taken in Bali by
COP-13 to the UNFCCC. COP 16 formed the Cancum Agreement part in December 2010.
REDD (reduced emissions from
deforestation and forest degradation) include some kind of initiatives to
change the usage of forest in the world. It’s also pay heed on reducing carbon
dioxide emission by reducing deforestation of the world. They manage the forest
as well as carbon trading. The objectives of REDD are as follows:
1. Decrease of emission from
2. Decrease emissions from degradation
3. Conserve the stocks of carbon in
4. Management of forest in a sustainable
5. Increase of carbon stocks of forest.
3. Rejection of Payment making for REDD:
Initial detail about forest is that
payments are not arrange for saving forest and decrease the emissions release
due to deforestation and degradation of the forests. Emissions can be compensating
by placing forest on another place and industry place on that site. The
suggestion of taking payments was given in Kyoto protocol, but it cannot accept
due to the following four reasons.
Leakage is the fact according to
which if deforestation cannot do on a place then the deforesters have to move
on another place of forest.
Additionally check the fact that if
REDD cannot done their project then what happened in their absence.
It checks the number of tree die or
die in near future and release their carbon back in the environment. It also checks
the carbon stored carbon in tree.
It refers to check the measurement
can done calculated accurately or not and carbon stored in forest and soil of
the forest is very difficult to measure accurately due to which errors were
4. Finance of REDD:
Most important factor of REDD cannot
decided at that time and it can be delay to COP-17 in December 2011.And
decision about funding taken in COP-17.There are two main process for finance
Through this way funds can be provided
by the government e.g. Government of Norwegian International Forest and Climate
Initiatives provide funds for that purpose.
4.2. Private Funding:
Private funding collect through private
resources e.g. the pollution emitters have to pay against their emission
There are various hybrids of these
processes i-e government fund collect through tax on the selling of carbon or
5. Drawbacks of REDD Plus:
The objectives of the REDD are the plus
points of the REDD. But there are some drawbacks of REDD i-e:
Conservation can be accepted well by the
formation of national parks but it can become the cause of loss of rights of
common people i-e local community. And it can also be notice that stick
conversation is not sustainable. And REDD can check the carbon stored in forest
only and cannot pay heed on ecosystem.
5.2. Sustainable Management of forest:
It includes the industrial formation in
the place of old forest.
5.3. Enhancement of forest carbon stocks:
Enhancement of forest carbon stocks
includes the conversion of land into industrial tree plantation through taking
strong steps for diversity of forest and community in the area.
There are some protective measure of
AWG/LCA to avoid problems but it can only adopted by US on the rights of
indigenous people but it cannot provide to them.
6. Carbon trading:
Trading of the Carbon storing in the
forest is contentious due to the following reasons:
Ø Carbon trading cannot prove to
reduce the emission of carbon because by the selling of carbon credits it can allow
pollution in other country and become the cause of increase of global warming.
Ø By trading different foam of carbon
can be produce which cause different problem as well as also difficulty faces
during measurement of stored carbon.
Ø Through the opening of carbon market
with less experience of conservation cause problems for local community.
7. Flaws of REDD:
There are two types of flaws were found
This is the main flaws in REDD because
no agreement on finance prepare and various actors gave their suggestion that it’s
not a good way to get finance by carbon trading. It will be very dangerous.
Corruption is also a serious factor
because money flow through trading of carbon credits in different countries
done. Forestry department is the most corrupt department in many worlds’
countries. Due to which risk of money loss and fraud increase. Billions of dollars
already loss due to frauds in Europe.