With the help of differentphotographers and theoreticians this essay will discuss ‘how is ideologyconstructed within advertising images?’. To help me convey this, this essaywill be exploring figure 1/figure 2 , showing the importance of ideology andthe constructing process within them. Advertisement thrives to achieve only onegoal, to sell their product successfully and obtain a ‘preferred'(Hall 1993, citedin Wells, 2004,p.
212) reading from theirtargeted audience. Through the relationship of text, commodities and individuals,the advertisement campaign can create its own specific concept by selectivelychoosing from a list of variables such as gender, location, income, educationand linguistic factors. By constructing a particular concept an advert can thentarget the best suitable groups that relate to these variables the best.
As a result,advertiser can rely on the advertise conveying Spher and Wilson (1986) theoryon ‘common knowledge'(Spher and Wilson 1986 cited in Holmes ,2009,p.6). Thisworks on the concept of targeting a particular group. For example, in figure 1the advertisement is aimed directly at young female adults with a disposableincome that want to be unique in preference to following a main stream fashionculture. American Apparel is also sure to further target their audience by advertisingtheir image on all the media platforms that are primarily occupied by 18-30-year-oldfemales such as fashion and beauty blogs.
Furthermore, AmericanApparel uses ideology in figure 1 by using Vanessa as an Icon, she isphysically representing the clothing line. Both Saussure and Pierce agreed on thefact that if we want to understand the meaning of a sign we need to understandthe structure. In this case, there isn’t much index however we can pick out fewelements such as how Vanessa is wearing thigh knee socks and chewing bubble gumand how that appeals to the targeted audience which are teens and young adults.This whole image is structured to be slightly sexualised.
The subject ispartially naked, the thigh knee socks can relate to stockings, moreover, thesocks are not just over the knee but they’re pulled up to her thighs, the thickknee socks undermine the fetish quality of stockings and school girls. Thesubject is also chewing gum which has always been a sexual image for example,we can see in films such as ‘Joy of Sex’ (1984), a teenager chewing gum hasbeen portrayed as sexy and this then creates the stereotype of it beingsexualised. However, more importantly we see that the advert had carefullyconstructed a play on words with the word Bubblelicious. This makes us theaudience question what is bubblecious ? We can interpret this in many ways suchas her life being bubblelicious, however with the help of text placement andrelay we subliminally interpret that bubbelicious is referring to her butt. Thetriangle process described by Pierce works well within this image, ‘The”intepretant” resulting in our mind from the first “representamen” can thenbecome a further sign and trigger an infinite chain of associations'(Pierce 1977,cited in Crow,2003,p.37), in this case the ‘intepretant’ is the word bubbleliciousand through the chain of sequence the viewer gets to the ‘representamen’ thather butt is sweet, bubblelious refers to delicious which refers to her buttwhich then refers to sweet.