We also assessed that pressure will destroy the


We are living
in busy pace of modern life, which causes stress and anxiety. Stress and
anxiety in turn leads many problems such as memory loss and inability to
concentrate in human brains, depression, irritability, sleep disorders and
other problems.  Some researchers have
also assessed that pressure will destroy the body’s hormones, brain
neurotransmitters, immune function and metabolism(1). Moreover, anxiety and stress are among the most
unpleasant experiences in patients undergoing all scans and operations
because of being in an unfamiliar environment, drug used and their effects,
expectation of good test results, separation from
family and other possible complications. All above mentioned are factors that
can lead patients to be anxious in the waiting room before imaging and
operations, resulting in bad diagnosis and treatment. Although stimulant
medications are commonly prescribed to treat the symptoms of anxiety and stress,
many people are interested in using another method such as musical intervention
to decrease drug’s side effects. Binaural auditory beat stimulation as a musical
intervention or relaxation drug can reduce symptoms such as anxiety and stress
in people felt anxious.  

 

Binaural
beats are auditory waves occurring when applying head phones, right and left
ears are separately exposed to two tones with a little different frequency that the superior olivary
nucleus in the brainstem interprets the phase difference between the two tones,
hence the binaural beat (2). For instance, if a clear tone of 400 Hz is presented to the
left ear and a tone of 410 Hz is presented to the right ear this produces a
perceived frequency of 405 Hz which modulates in amplitude with a frequency of
10 Hz. This modulated signal is often referred to as a beat and can be produced
when the difference in frequency between the two carrier tones ranges from
between 2 and 30 Hz (3). It should be noted that
frequency range of binaural beats are in the alpha, beta, and theta/delta EEG frequency
bands, precisely like frequency range of the brain, so this is the reason why many studies have linked binaural beats to some form
of physiological and psychological effects Such auditory stimulation or binaural beats has
been reported to affect behaviour and cognition via the process of cortical
entrainment because they may entrain
electrocortical activity and enhance cognition functions such as attention and
memory(4). 
Also, some studies have reported that binaural beats can modify physiological
and cognitive processes through synchronization of the brain hemispheres, which
can in turn cause reducing anxiety, increasing pain threshold, improved vigilance and
memory, increased levels of hypnotic susceptibility, severity ratings of
tinnitus and self-reported
psychologic measures (5-10). According to the assumption that the human brain can
modify its dominant MEG frequency towards the frequency of the external
stimulus, so we can evaluate the effects of binaural beats on the brainwave.

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 Over the past few years, the use of these
beats as a therapeutic tool has gained interest among neurophysiologists and
clinicians (11), so it is so curial to complete their theoretical aspects and practical
implications.

 

 However, the perceptual strength of a binaural beat signal
still remains unanswered and as well as there is a
lack of research regarding the possible effects of listening to binaural beats
and why and how they can influence on brainwaves.

 

Garcia?Argibay et al. Have demonstrated that the presentation of binaural
auditory beats can affect long-term memory both positively and negatively,
depending on the frequency used, but the exact frequencies are not clear yet(4). Karnio et al. have shown
that theta (6.6 Hz) binaural beats can elicit changes when measured using a
very short exposure window of 1000 ms (12), but Goodin et al. and
Wahbeh et al. could not find any evidence of cortical entrainment when theta (7
Hz) binaural beats were constantly presented for 2 min, or for periods of up to
30 min(10, 13). The reason can be that
continuous and prolonged exposure to a binaural beat results in the brain to
habituate to the signal. Since with
the nature and frequency of the carrier tones used to present the binaural
beats and the duration of exposure, binaural beats can have different effects
on the brainwaves, so understanding about those parameters can mainly help us
design and refine future entrainment protocols.

 

 

During the project, we will address following
questions:

1.     
The evaluation of the effect of binaural beats on the
different band frequencies in resting state by Magentoencephalography (MEG)

2.     
 Understanding
about whether the binaural beats can influence on the right and left hemisphere
of the brain uniformly or not.

3.     
 What are the effects of binaural beats on
brain connectivity and what is the mechanism of binaural beats in the brain.

4.     
Investigation of autonomic nervous
system alteration in correlation with MEG recordings during exposure to
binaural beats to better understand how and to what extent these special tones
can affect anxiety state.

 

 

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