v networking started in several computer science laboratories

    v History of Internet Internet is the biggest worldwide communication network in computers and mobile phones. Talking about history of internet, it began with the development of electronic computers in 1950s.

Then initial concepts of networking started in several computer science laboratories in USA, UK          France.US military had a problem about communication with other cities during the cold war. So US military decided to create an agency called Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was charged with solving this communication problem. So after lot of experiments in 1977 ARPAnet engineers realized that this network was going to grow into much larger than they expected so they need a new communication technology.

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Then they devised this communication protocol known as TCP/IP. So after lot of innovations in 1983 1st of January all of the ARPAnet was switched to TCP/IP and became what is now known as the Internet.After all of this in 1990 World Wide Web was created by a British man who named Tim Berners.   1)  W3C:- Recommendations published by the World Wide Web Consortium2)  IETF:-  Request for Comments (RFC) documents published by the Internet Engineering Task Force3)  IAB:- The Internet Architecture Board (IAB)4)  Isoc:- Internet Society v Importance of the layers in TCP/IP First of all TCP stands for Transmission control protocol and IP stands for Internet protocol. TCP/IP is based on OSI model.

Actually TCP/IP is everywhere. Without these protocols we can’t allow anyone with a computer, modem, and an Internet service provider to access and share information over the Internet. Internet Protocol (IP) is responsible for transferring data packets while transmission control protocol (TCP) makes sure that the data goes to the right place.

Also TCP makes easier for computer programs to communicate with other devices and mainly over computer networks. When a computer program wants to send many data, its bit of hard to send these data but when we use TCP, it helps to divide those data and send them to the right place. On the other hand IP has several symptoms that define how data is transmitted. For examples Hosting address, Connectionless delivery, Protocol independence, best effort delivery. Those are main importance things of the layers in TCP/IP. v Importance of protocols in Internet services.  As I mentioned before protocols are most important thing in internet services. If we don’t have these protocols we are unable to use internet either, It’s like we are living without Oxygen.

Protocol is the bunch of technical rules that is used to successfully connect to the internet, and it is not possible one computer to communicate with other computer and it also helps to view pages on the computer, helps us to send or receive a file from one computer to other. v What is DNS Resolution?  DNS Resolution means Domain Name System Resolution. DNS is an amazing technology system. Domain names make easier for people to remember than IP addresses. They maintain a directory of domain names and translate them to Internet Protocol addresses. It helps us to open the Internet without any trouble. It is the main purpose of having a DNS resolution. v Importance of Firewalls and Proxy servers in Internet securityA firewall and a proxy server are both components of network security.

When we talk about importance proxy server, proxy server is a server which clients use to access other computers. Proxy server can help you, such as hide client IP, speed up Internet surfing, access blocked websites and bypass region restrictions and so on.  On the other hand when we talk about firewall, a firewall is a system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network and also it helps to network security system designed to prevent unauthorized access to or from a private network.

Firewalls can be implemented as both hardware and software, or a combination of both. These are the main reasons of using Proxy server and Firewalls. v VoIP and Mobile IP technologies First of all VoIP means voice over IP. It is a group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over IP network.

The main feature that VoIP offers is low cost international calls to any destination in the world. Second of all Mobile IP is a form where VoIP technology is operated from mobile devices. Mobile IP is same as Mobile VoIP. v IPv4 and IPv6 IPv4 stands for IP version 4. It is the technology that makes it possible for us to connect our devices to the web. Whenever a device accesses the internet.

It is perfect a unique numerical IP address such as To send data from one computer to another through the web. IPv6 stands for IP version 6.

IPv6 is more success than IPv4. Both of them have same characteristics. However, it does sport one major difference: it utilizes 128-bit addresses.


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