Twosleep disorders are insomnia and narcolepsy. Insomnia is when a personhas a consistent problem either falling or staying asleep. This is also one ofthe most common sleep disorders that plague people. This sleep disorder is alsotied to depression which is also very common mental illness. The main causes ofinsomnia include mental illness, drug and alcohol abuse, stress, age, and anysleep changes. One treatment that would help with insomnia but would lead to atolerance would be sleeping pills.
Sleeping pills can help a person in fallingand staying asleep but the quality of sleep could be worsened because thesubject won’t be hitting REM sleep as often. Also, as I stated beforethe subject will over time develop a tolerance of the drug and as a result willneed more to fall asleep. A second sleep disorder is Narcolepsy, this iswhen a person will have a sudden urge to sleep at any given time. This sleepdisorders main symptom is when a person is triggered by overwhelming stress orany time of excitement.
The causes of narcolepsy are usually due to aneurological disorder, or the brain not producing enough orexin. One treatmentfor Narcolepsy that won’t cure it but can help in reducing and managing itwould be stimulants. Somepeople get addicted to painkillers like OxyContin because at first, the drughelps reduce pain and allow for the user to feel high. But with repeated use ofthe drug the brain will eventually stop making endorphins which is what OxyContinmimics as it is an opiate.
This drug is also a drug that is very easy toget addicted to even if you are taking them as prescribed by a doctor, especiallybecause some may be predisposed to addiction if it runs in their family. Thechanges that occur in the brain that create addiction are the brain and body developinga tolerance for the drug. This makes the user have to up their dosage torecreate the original high they got with the first few times they used thedrug. A second change in the brain would be that the drug is giving the brainendorphins without having to create them. So eventually the brain will stopproducing these endorphins altogether leaving the user in a state of withdrawalif they stop taking the drug. Tolerance can be reversed if one stopstaking the drug. With the second change in the brain again if a person stopstaking the drug the brain will eventually start producing endorphins again, butto avoid having withdrawals a user needs to be weaned off the drug togive the brain time to restart the pituitary gland producing endorphins.
It isbest for a user to seek proper help to wean off of a drug the right way.A real-life example of classical conditioningthat I’ve heard about is someone being scared when they see a dog. The unconditionedstimulant would be someone screaming every time someone sees a dog. The unconditionedresponse would be the subject jumping and would be scared when someonescreams because that is just what most people would naturally do to someonescreaming.
The conditioned stimulant would be seeing a dog, and the conditionedresponse would be to jump and be scared because the subject now associatesseeing a dog with someone screaming. To make this learned relationship extinctwould be to not scream when the subject sees a dog, this will take a while forthe relationship to become fully extinct.