to kill a mockingbird


to kill a mockingbird
To Kill A Mockingbird
To Kill A Mockingbird is a great book written by Harper Lee. This book is about
Tom Robinson trying to help a white girl named Mayella. All that Tom was trying
to do was help that little white girl out, but he was alone with her. Bob Ewell
Mayella’s father said that Tom raped his daughter Mayella. He was just walking
by and got asked to help a girl out so he did because he felt sorry for her.

Those were three things leading to Tom Robinson’s conviction.

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The first cause was the prejudice ness of the south in the 1930’s. One example
of this is the churches were segregated. “Calpernia motioned Jem and ma to the
end of the row and placed herself between us.”(120) Though the conjugation was
kind to the children they were surprised of the children. Alexandria wanted
Atticus to be fired for being Tom’s attorney since Tom is black. The town was
outraged that Atticus would do suck a thing. Atticus was helping Tom Robinson
so now everyone is mad at Atticus. “Do you defend niggers Atticus?”(74)
Everyone wants Atticus to be fired for helping Tom. Atticus is just trying to
help Tom now everyone is against him. A group of town members formed a mob and
went to the jail to lynch Tom. The mob that the town formed went to the jail
and started things. “The men jumped a little and scattered: because they were
people everyday…. “(146) The towns mob went to the jail for Tom because of
what has been going on. The towns mob was angry that they went to the jail.

Bob Ewell and Mayella accused Tom of the crime. Bob was accountable for seeing
Tom raping Mayella. Judge Taylor asked Bob. “Mr. Ewell did you see the
defendant having sexual intercourse with your daughter?”(174) Bob said that he
saw his daughter getting raped by Tom Robinson. His own daughter Mayella also
accused Bob of being a drunk. Mayella’s testimony says that Tom raped her also
gave the jury another white witness against Tom Robinson. Mayella told the
judge that her father was a decent, “Except for when he was drunk.”(183)
Mayella said that Tom raped her so they believed her because she was a white
young girl testifying against a black man. Another reason that they believed
her is because that it’s Mayella’s, and Bobs Ewell’s word that Tom raped her.

No doctor had ever examined Mayella to see if she actually got raped at all.

“Did you call a doctor sheriff!” “Did anyone call a doctor?” “No ser said Mr.

Tait.” No body called a doctor because it was a black mans word against two
white peoples word. The reason that they didn’t call a doctor is that they
didn’t rally care if he raped her or not it’s just that they want to put one
more black person in jail because of the color of his skin.

Finally Tom was allowing himself to be alone with a white young woman because he
felt sorry for her so he wasn’t thinking really. Tom had talked about stopping
and helping her. “Did you ever go on the place again?” “Yes Suh” “When?”
“Well I went lots of times.”(191) The reason that Tom went over there was to
help Mayella so that he could be a good guy. He was just trying to be a good
man all the work that Tom did he did it all for free out of the kindness of his
heart. Tom felt sorry for Mayella so he helped her every day after work. “Yes
suh.” “I felt sorry for her.”(184) That’s why he went and helped her out in
the first place. So he felt good about it so he kept helping her for the hell
of it. Tom helped Mayella break up big things that would be hard for her. “She
always had a little something for me to do – chopping’ kindle’, totin’ water for
her.” Every time he walked is she would have a new job for him to do for her.

He always would always be pleased to help her.

Tom Robinson had three main causes leading to the conviction. The towns’ people
put a lynch mob together and were shocked of Atticus’s actions for helping a
black man. Bob said that he saw sexual intercourse between Tom and Mayella so
the judge believed him but they didn’t ever examine Mayella for rape. The
reasons that he stopped at all were that he felt sorry for her because Bob was a
drunk. Mayella had told the judge that Bob was a drunk and he believed her.

Tom had gotten put in jail for raping Mayella.

I think that Friar Laurence was to a large extent responsible for the
deaths of Romeo and Juliet. However, several other factors contributed
and we can not solely blame one person. The circumstances, time period
and characters need to be taken into consideration.


The Friar is introduced half way through the play, and his role is a
vital one. In his first scene we see him with the poison, and this
scene links up with his last two scenes and the consequences of that
same poison. His entrance breaks the pace of the previous balcony
scene, and gives the audience time to absorb what has occurred between
Romeo and Juliet.


Juliet has an almost non-existent relationship with Capulet. Friar
Laurence fills this void by portraying a ^father^ figure in Juliet^s
life. She trusts him and confides in him regularly. ^Hold daughter. I
do spy a kind of hope^^ In addition the Friar is also Romeo^s confident
and tries to find solutions to their overwhelming problems.


He also breaks the terrible news to Romeo about his banishment, and he
tries to do so in a humane way. He comforts the distraught Romeo, and
when potential danger lurks, offers him a shelter under the desk!
Friar Laurence tries to dissuade Pairs from marrying Juliet. This could
be selfish behavior on his part, as the Friar knows he would be
committing a sin if he married Juliet to Paris, when she was already
married to Romeo.


Another example of the Friar^s selfish intentions, is the tomb scene,
whereupon finding Juliet in there, and two dead bodies lying on the
floor, he needs no persuasion to leave, which he does so in immense
haste!
The following incident is an example of how the Friar contributed to
the deaths of the star-crossed lovers. He marries Romeo and Juliet,
fully aware that they do not have their parents consent. He should have
refused to marry them or sought the advice of an older and more
experienced member of the church.


It was the Friar^s idea that Juliet swallows the remedy. This was a
very rash decision, and, if thought out properly, he would have
realised the dire consequences and complications that could occur.


Friar Laurence largely contributed to the deaths of Romeo and Juliet by
marrying them despite their ages, giving Juliet the poison and by not
thinking things through clearly. Instead he always tried to find a
^quick-fix^ solution. However, he has a kind disposition, and honestly
tries to help Romeo and Juliet in whatever way he can. And, to give him
his due, he did confess his sins, and offer to sacrifice his life. This
confession, added to the tragic deaths of the young lovers, ceased the
age-old fight between the Capulets and the Montagues.


Reason Not Religion
Observations and inferneces from real life perceptions: My entire life
I have been a Catholic and have attended Church regularly with my
family, always believing in God and the stories and tales of the Bible
as pure fact that happened long ago, and of Jesus being the savior,
etc.


Just this past month I attended a Presbyterian church service with my
elderly grandmother in Johnstown, Pennsylvania. The church was small to
begin with, and only about one-third of the seats were filled. I would
have to say that at least 95% of the people were all over 65, with very
few young couples at all. My grandma made a comment on the lack of
young people who attend the masses now, and she kept referring to the
fact that recently less and less young couples and families ever
attended church.


At first I thought that this church would then seriously have to close
its doors when the current majority of the parishioners died, but then
I realized another aspect of human behavior and psychology.


The characteristic that I see and hear so much about that many humans
tend to possess and practice, is the fact that they become “closer to
“god”” the older they get. Why is this? It is because of one of the
same big reasons that we even have to have religion in the first place:
fear about death and what happens to us afterwards. These people seem
to be turning to the kind of thinking that inspired the dichotic idea
of PASCAL^S WAGER. Even if these people were not very religious during
their younger years, we can now see a trend of a large section of our
country^s population starting to attend church more and more and become
more “religious” as they grow older. What inspires this shift?–plain
and simple, the fear of uncertainty.


“QUESTIONING” ONES BELIEFS MUST GO BEYOND JUST WONDERING
When I used to attend Church regularly their was a priest who was an
extremely good speaker and extremely
intelligent. Even though he was a Catholic priest, serving as the pastor
of an extremely large church, he had the
courage and brains to disagree with some of the rigid dogma setup and
enforced by the Vatican. I remember one
sermon he gave that has greatly influenced me since, and I am very happy
I was fortunate enough to hear it. In
this certain sermon he talked about his thoughts on it being good for
teenagers and youth to question the
existence of a God in their world. He talked at length about this
questioning and finished up the speech with the
summation that even though we can question, it all comes back to God.


I continued to believe in this way for a very long time. That there were
many questions concerning the actual and
true existence of God, however due to certain things like the design of
the world, everything had to relate back to
an almighty creator. Just recently I have started to realize the problem
with my previous concept of “questioning”,
as well as this particular priest’s. In the manner that he was referring
to this concept, he was very right in the fact
that “everything has to come back to God”. The reason that this is true
is due to the fact that just questioning is
exactly that: if all we do is say to ourselves, is “Gee I wonder?”, then
we of course will not be able to come up with
any alternative except to continue believing in the existence of a
“god”.


Questioning one^s faith must not only encompass asking yourself
epistemological and metaphysical questions,
but we must explore, learn, and above all gain knowledge about the
evidence and the arguments from both sides
of the debate. We must have dialogues with others who believe the same
as us, as well as those who share a
completely different, even blatantly contrary view. Only by these means
can we ever come out with a greater
understanding of the issues surrounding the questions about the
existence of a supreme being. If this procedure
is followed and we always continue to learn and accept new, valid
information then we will eventually find our
own sense of the truth, and our own philosophy for our lives.


MY JOURNEY TO FIND THE TRUTH, AND SUBSEQUENT “LEAP OF REASON”
This past year I really started examining my own beliefs and faith in
“God”. As I read Homer^s Iliad, information
about Mithra (Jesus^ immediate mythological predecessor), and many other
sources that put questions in my mind
about the validity of my faith, I began to seriously doubt whether “God”
was something just made up by humans
since the beginning of time to explain their world, or was really the
truth.


I am sure now in my mind that the images and symbols used to represent
“God” and initially “gods”, were
contrived simply to explain phenomena of the planet, mysteries of life,
and to satisfy that extremely strong need of
human beings to feel important. This past point I feel is the most
pivotal in understanding the human race^s
majority view of the existence of a supernatural power. There are so
many people today that of course we can^t all
have jobs that most would consider “important” and help lead the holder
of that job to
“SELF-ACTUALIZATION”, so a “god” makes up for that. It is written and
spoken by Christians and the Bible
that all human beings are equal and that they are all loved the same by
“God”, therefore everyone is extremely
important because the “maker of us all” values them on par with everyone
else. A respected businessman who
has worked for his fortune is the same as a neurotic drug addict begging
for money; often times the former is seen
even as more evil.


THE FALLACIOUS ARGUMENTS FOR THE EXISTENCE OF A GOD
In my quest to find the truth about the existence of a “God”, which will
always be going on and never end, I have
also made it a point to study those arguments which are many
philosophers^ and theists^ base for their belief in an
almighty creator. I will begin by explaining the thought that goes into
each argument, and how the people whom
are proponents of these such arguments validate their claims. I will
then therefore proceed to point out the
mistakes that I believe each of them makes, some more than others. These
three main arguments are as follows:
Teleological Argument for the Existence of God
The teleological argument for the existence of God is one that uses the
actual existents we know in reality, in this
case the entire planet and universe, and uses these in a somewhat well
developed theory for the existence of a
“god”.


The simplest way to define this argument is to use the simple analogy of
a clock maker to a clock; or intelligent
designer to an intelligent design. This is the conscious basis for a
theory that states that due to the fact that we
live and exist in a wholly technical and advanced-level world where
things such as the existence of life and
humans are very “intelligent”, then there must be an intelligent creator
that first shaped us all and everything
around us. This theory has been changed and developed even more over the
years into modern versions.


The main ideas that I find inherently wrong with this argument come from
the fact that first: theists believe that
God just exists and always has, however he too would be an intelligent
being, and according to the teleological
argument itself, would “He” then not necessitate an intelligent
designer? And so on and so forth^ Therefore
theists who believe in the “existence exists” idea in terms of a “God”,
and also tend to endorse the teleological
argument, are contradicting themselves because of a conflict in which
the premises of their two parallel beliefs are
at odds. Those making this contradiction must check their premises.


Another more abstract theory that can act to somewhat disprove the
validity of this argument is that of the
“OSCIALLATING UNIVERSE THEORY”. This theory in a nutshell states that
the universe is constantly either
expanding or condensing, as long as matter is present in the universe. A
corollary of this theory also says that
there is substantial evidence that the universe has expanded to its
limit and then shrunken down again into one
point of infinite density, temperature, and curvature, only to explode
again (the big bang), a total of 100 times!
With the potential of an entirely new universe being created each time
this has happened, with the potential of
completely different laws of physics and the behavior of matter, then
there is definitely the increased possibility of
our planet simply existing and being able to support life by a chance
creation of the universe we live in, created by
the current expansion and creation that has been happening for an
estimated 10 billion years. The fact is, with that
many worlds being created over time, there is a sure chance that out of
all those planets created, at least one, ours,
could support life.


The Ontological Argument for the Existence of God
The Ontological argument for the existence of a “God” is more complex,
and more utterly unfounded then the one,
previous argument that we have examined. This argument basis its entire
“proof” on floating abstractions made
about the brain of man, his conscious, and the things it is unable to
do. This argument is commonly referred to St.

Anselm, its primary creator. The argument goes like this: We all have
somewhat of an image or idea of what “God”
is in our minds, even atheists who don^t believe in any “god” still have
somewhat of a conception of what a
“god”, if one existed, would have to be like and capable of. Our
conception of a “God” is fairly limited because to
conceive of a being so great and powerful is hard for us to do in the
first place. Anselm holds that because we can
therefore conceive nothing greater than “God”, one must exist.


Let^s look at that in simplistic form: due to the fact that I can
neither think nor conceive of anything greater than
this entity, the particular entity which I can not go beyond therefore
must exist. How absurd of an argument is
this? Its only foundation lies on some unconnected idea of a
philosopher, randomly applied to reality. The main
problem that I have with this argument is that it takes a rule and law
of reality and reason, and applies to
something that we simply can have no conclusion ever made on while
living on earth. If I say that there is nothing
worse and more scary that I can conceive of beyond death, so therefore
death must exist, I am right because death
does exist. In this case the ontological argument for the existence of
death works. How do I know it
works?–because I can see and perceive death in reality and I can know
it beginning with my sense perceptions.

The existence of, and my knowledge of death, is hierarchical. However
the concept of “God” can^t not be traced
back to basic sense perceptions (where all concepts must be originally
derived from), and is therefore unable to be
grounded in reality and truth. In order to gain higher knowledge of
something as complex as a “God”, we fist must
perceive basic facts of reality. There are no basic facts of reality to
perceive when it comes to the concept of
“God”.


Think of any concrete that almost all men believe in and their can be no
real intellectual debate about without one
of the parties being totally irrational in even disputing the fact^that
concrete concept can be traced back to the
traced down on through the line directly to man^s ability to perceive.
“God”^this concept can not be broken
down into anything close to reality and perception. It is because of
this fact that even if you do believe in “God”,
in order to retain any sense of being able to think, you must remain
agnostic. If we refuse to recognize the fact that
the existence of “God” is impossible to perceive, then human knowledge
will perish into an abyss of unconnected
and unsupported beliefs in irrational and ungrounded faiths, which we
will fool ourselves into believing is reality.


The Cosmological Argument for the Existence of God
The Cosmological argument hinges on a property which is a corollary of
the axiom of existence. This law is the law
of causality^which states that all things that occur do so because they
are caused. The proponents of this
argument then take this law, which we apply to every day reality on
Earth, to the beginning of the universe. They
say that the universe just couldn^t have existed for all time, but that
it would have to had been created just like
everything else. They then take these beliefs even farther when they
assert that the process of creation and
existence can not be infinite in either moving forward, or looking
backward.


For instance, these people believe that “God” created the
universe^therefore the universe has a cause. However
they do begin to get into contradictory waters as soon as they are
confronted with the fact that they believe of
their God^s existence^was God created too? No^they say that there has to
be some beginning that just was and
always will be^there can be no infinity in either going forward, and no
infinite progression backwards through
ages of cause after cause. This first contradiction is plain and obvious
to the educated interpreter of the argument,
the others are more deeply involved with other problems.


If these people believe in the phrase “existence exists” when it comes
to their God, then why can^t this just be
applied to something such as the universe? Why do we need a fanciful
“God” to explain the beginning of the
universe when the cosmological argument already asserts that things can
not simply progress or regress
infinitely? The reason is due to the concepts we discussed earlier of
the need of human “self-actualization” and
the reassurance of an afterlife where we can finally fully enjoy our
humanity and existence.


This argument is right in one respect: the very entity that initially
created the universe itself was not caused or
created. In this correctness however they fail by failing to correctly
identify that thing which did create the
universe^it was not “God”, but something which contained the entire
universe and still is a part of that universe.

(FOR A CLARIFICATION OF WHAT I AM REFERRING TO HERE, READ THIS.)
FINAL CONCLUSIONS
My final conclusions so far in my quest to understand the basis for
beliefs and proof for the existence and
non-existence of “God” are short, small, and completely unfinished. They
are my final conclusions for this paper,
at this point in my life. One^s true final conclusions on these matters
will only be able to made some day if there is
some place, perhaps not necessarily a heaven, where we will have time to
think and reflect on what we have
learned during our lives, and perhaps even after them.


For now I know that no matter what paths we follow as human beings on
journey to cognitive understanding
about “God”, we must always remain agnostic for the complete duration of
our mortal lives, primarily because of
the lack of a hierarchy of knowledge which we can see and deduct for the
concept of “God”. Finally, we must all
learn as much as we possibly can and can volitionally motivate ourselves
to in order to understand this debate
and conflict in human belief.

x

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