The Venezuela researchers studied the presence of mcr-1

The data of
this study represents the first time to detect a multi-resistant E. coli
which is resistant to both carbapenem and colistin in Egypt. Additionally, our
genetic analysis reveals that mcr-1 was the causative agent. Consequently,
it is considered as alarming sign in our area. Later in 2016 it was a published
case for mcr-1 which was detected using PCR and DNA sequencing to screen
for its presence in 241 Gram-negative clinical bacterial isolates collected in
Egypt (Elnahriry S. S. et al., 2016). Their analysis showed that mcr-1
was present in only one E. coli isolate (SP-1). This E.coli had
phenotypic resistance to colistin, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, kanamycin,
tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, ampicillin, and cefotaxime but was
susceptible to carbapenemes. (Elnahriry S. S. et al., 2016).


Another group
of researchers detected the mcr-1 gene in four Escherichia coli
isolates (Linda Falgenhauer et al., 2016). Three were originated from swine (R253,
V163, 112065) and one from a human wound infection (NRZ14408). R253, V163, and
112065 were extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing isolates that harbour blaCTX-M-1,
whereas the NRZ14408 human isolate carries a blaKPC-2 carbapenemes
gene in addition to mcr-1 (Linda
Falgenhauer et al.,

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In Denmark mcr-1
gene was detected (Hasman, et al., 2015). It was also detected previously
in China by Yi-Yun Liu and colleagues (Liu, Y-Y et al., 2015).



In France
ESBL-positive E. coli isolates were collected for examining colistin
resistance. Their genetic experiments confirmed the genetic origin of mcr-1
which was carried on plasmid (Marisa
Haenni  et al., 2016).

Other researchers
reported E. coli strain harboring both mcr-1 and
carbapenemase gene blaNDM-5, originally isolated from a US patient in
August 2014. The patient had emigrated from India and resided continuously in
the United States for 1 year before their study (José R et al.,

In Venezuela researchers
studied the presence of mcr-1 in human, animal, and environmental Enterobacteriaceae
samples from Cumana, Venezuela, that were collected in 2015. The mcr-1
gene was detected in 2 isolates of E. coli from swine (novel ST452) and
human (ST19) samples that were resistant to colistin. Whole-genome sequencing
and transformation experiments identified mcr-1 on an IncI2 plasmid. One
of the isolates also bore the widely spread carbapenemase NDM-1 (Delgado et
al., 2016).

In this study,
we found that the carbapenem-colistin double resistant E. coli was
sensitive to levofloxacin and gentamycin alleviating the situation. Therefore,
we suggest that colistin and polymyxin could be combined with levofloxacin or
gentamycin in line with the common attempt of combining colistin with powerful


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