The Elements of Moral Philosophy’s fourth
chapter is showing about relationships between the morality and religion. At
the first, the book show story of Judge Roy Moore of Gadsden. He was sued by
ACLU because he displayed the Ten Commandments in his courtroom, but the people
were behind him. He was putting God above the law, so he was called by “Ten
Commandments judge” in Alabama. As you can see, America is a religious country.
More than 80% of Americans believe in God and most of them are Christian. And in the United States, Christian clergy are known as moral
experts. But in this chapter, it is
questioned whether it is right.
Many beliefs based on God believe that we must obey God’s
rules. God does not compel them, but he is guilty of those who do not keep. It
can solve the problems of ethical objectivity. But there are some problems. At
first, people who don’t trust God will not accept the God’s rules. Then next,
they think “right” can be defined as “what the gods command.” As for the
problems, the book proves it with famous people such as Socrates and
Shakespeare. That is not to say, however, that this is completely contradictory.
Because I’m also talking about the disadvantages of the second option.
The dominant theory of ethics isn’t the divine command
theory when Christian says. That will be the theory of natural law. The theory
can be separate by three parts. At the first, the theory depends on the world
view. This means that, as Aristotle said, “belongs to the class of causes which
act for the sake of something.” Then the laws of nature explain not only how
objects must exist, but also how things should be. So, some of the actions of a
person are natural and others are unnatural. At last, the book treats the
question of moral knowledge. Through this, it supports the view that the law
knows the best reason to act or what is right.
Finally, this book talks about Christianity and Catholic
thinking about abortion. They regarded abortion as a murderer, and from the
moment they regarded the conception as a person in the stomach. But recently I
have also given examples of changes in their claims. After all, what I want to
say in this book is that the position of the modern church is wrong, but
religious beliefs can sometimes affect moral problems.