The group key by an authorized node.

The research proposed highlightsthe problem of energy consumption in MANET by applying the Fitness Functiontechnique to optimize the energy consumption in Ad Hoc on Demand MultipathDistance Vector (AOMDV) routing protocol.

The proposed protocol is called AdHoc on Demand Multipath Distance Vector with the Fitness Function(FF-AOMDV).The fitness function is used to find the optimal path from the sourceto the destination to reduce the energy consumption in multipath routing. 1.2 AOMDV Routing protocol: An on-demand routing protocol,AOMDV has its roots in the Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV), a popularsingle-path routing protocol.

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AOMDV offers two key services: route discoveryand route maintenance. Compared with AODV, AOMDV’s additional overhead is extraRERRs and RREPs intended for multipath  maintenance and discovery, along with extrafields to route control packets . Route discovery and route maintenance involvefinding multiple routes from a source to a destination node. AOMDV utilizesthree control packets: the route request (RREQ); the route reply (RREP); andthe route error (RERR).A new multipath routing protocol called the FF-AOMDV routingprotocol is proposed which is a combination of Fitness Function and the AOMDV’sprotocol. The route, which consumes less energy could possibly be (a) the routethat has the shortest distance; (b) the route with the highest level of energy,or (c) both 2. LITERATURE SURVEY:EnergyEfficiency:The authorsTejpreet Singh et al. 1 demonstrates that Energy efficiency and security arethe challenging tasks in the design of a routing protocol.

Energy–efficientsecured routing protocol is proposed to overcome this challenge. Secureoptimized link state routing protocol is used to provide security to theprotocol. Node Identification to the network is announced and nodes areauthorized by the access control. Access control entity signs a private key Ki,public key Ki and the certificate Ci required to obtain the group key by anauthorized node. Group key distribution using the generated keys with messageshelps reducing energy consumption. The group key distribution mechanism enablesreplacement of the group key periodically or when a node is excluded. Theperiodic distribution excludes adversaries with the group key, but not aprivate key.

In community networks, an authorized user may send the group keyto a non-authorized friend so as to the friend accesses network resources. Anintrusion detection system (IDS) also triggers the group key distribution.  Fig.1 illustrates the group key distribution mechanism Sudhakar Pandey et al 2 Networkperformances can be improved by using cross-layer approach. Application oftransmission power control technique to adjust transmission power results inreduction of energy consumption.

ED is considered to calculate the weight   associated with each node. D stands for degreeand E stands for energy. Energy consumption is reduced and network performanceis improved by Control overhead reduction during route discovery and dynamicadjustment of transmission power. The energy model of wireless sensor networkcan be defined as the total energy consumption of the network, including allits units, be it sensor device components, energy consumed in routing or routemaintenance, topology maintenance or whosoever it may be.

Generating an energymodel is an important part of any protocol development and its performanceevaluation. Here we considered a network with n mobile sensor nodes and onesink node which is static.Energy consumed by sensor device:The sensor device comprises of processingunits, sensing unit, memory unit and transceiver unit. So, energyconsumption of each unit needs to beconsidered. E Sensor Device= E processor + E sensor + Ememory+Etransceiver                                          (1)                                                     Where E Sensor Device is the total energy consumed bya sensor device, E processor is the energy consumed by the processing units, E sensoris the energy consumed by the sensing unit, E memory is the energy consumed bythe memory unit and E transceiver is the energy consumed by the transceiverunit.Since network lifetime is an important performance criterion Sensor nodesoperate for years.

Energy consumption plays an important role in networklifetime. In working with network mobility is an important factor. About 70% ofnetwork’s energy is consumed in data communication. By taking average ofReceived Signal Strength (RSS) values, transmission power can be


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