The Route discovery and route maintenance involve finding

The research proposed highlights
the problem of energy consumption in MANET by applying the Fitness Function
technique to optimize the energy consumption in Ad Hoc on Demand Multipath
Distance Vector (AOMDV) routing protocol. The proposed protocol is called Ad
Hoc on Demand Multipath Distance Vector with the Fitness Function
(FF-AOMDV).The fitness function is used to find the optimal path from the source
to the destination to reduce the energy consumption in multipath routing.


1.2 AOMDV Routing protocol:

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An on-demand routing protocol,
AOMDV has its roots in the Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV), a popular
single-path routing protocol. AOMDV offers two key services: route discovery
and route maintenance. Compared with AODV, AOMDV’s additional overhead is extra
RERRs and RREPs intended for multipath  maintenance and discovery, along with extra
fields to route control packets . Route discovery and route maintenance involve
finding multiple routes from a source to a destination node. AOMDV utilizes
three control packets: the route request (RREQ); the route reply (RREP); and
the route error (RERR).A new multipath routing protocol called the FF-AOMDV routing
protocol is proposed which is a combination of Fitness Function and the AOMDV’s
protocol. The route, which consumes less energy could possibly be (a) the route
that has the shortest distance; (b) the route with the highest level of energy,
or (c) both




The authors
Tejpreet Singh et al. 1 demonstrates that Energy efficiency and security are
the challenging tasks in the design of a routing protocol. Energy–efficient
secured routing protocol is proposed to overcome this challenge. Secure
optimized link state routing protocol is used to provide security to the
protocol. Node Identification to the network is announced and nodes are
authorized by the access control. Access control entity signs a private key Ki,
public key Ki and the certificate Ci required to obtain the group key by an
authorized node. Group key distribution using the generated keys with messages
helps reducing energy consumption. The group key distribution mechanism enables
replacement of the group key periodically or when a node is excluded. The
periodic distribution excludes adversaries with the group key, but not a
private key. In community networks, an authorized user may send the group key
to a non-authorized friend so as to the friend accesses network resources. An
intrusion detection system (IDS) also triggers the group key distribution.


1 illustrates the group key distribution mechanism


Sudhakar Pandey et al 2 Network
performances can be improved by using cross-layer approach. Application of
transmission power control technique to adjust transmission power results in
reduction of energy consumption. ED is considered to calculate the weight   associated with each node. D stands for degree
and E stands for energy. Energy consumption is reduced and network performance
is improved by Control overhead reduction during route discovery and dynamic
adjustment of transmission power. The energy model of wireless sensor network
can be defined as the total energy consumption of the network, including all
its units, be it sensor device components, energy consumed in routing or route
maintenance, topology maintenance or whosoever it may be. Generating an energy
model is an important part of any protocol development and its performance
evaluation. Here we considered a network with n mobile sensor nodes and one
sink node which is static.

Energy consumed by sensor device:

The sensor device comprises of processing
units, sensing unit, memory unit and transceiver unit. So, energy

consumption of each unit needs to be

E Sensor Device
= E processor + E sensor +

Ememory+Etransceiver                                          (1)                                                    


Where E Sensor Device is the total energy consumed by
a sensor device, E processor is the energy consumed by the processing units, E sensor
is the energy consumed by the sensing unit, E memory is the energy consumed by
the memory unit and E transceiver is the energy consumed by the transceiver
unit.Since network lifetime is an important performance criterion Sensor nodes
operate for years. Energy consumption plays an important role in network
lifetime. In working with network mobility is an important factor. About 70% of
network’s energy is consumed in data communication. By taking average of
Received Signal Strength (RSS) values, transmission power can be


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