The provide security, equity, and fairness. Initial trust

The pivotal mechanism for a partnership to make the shift from
adversarial to collaborative interaction is trust. Trust has an internal and
external component. Internal trust builds on a belief in the positive
intentions of the partners, but also on their competences to contribute a
valuable input to the partnership. External trust relates to the expected
positive reactions in the broader networks the partners are part of (Nooteboom,
2006). Trust will not be created spontaneously but must be managed. Conditions
to facilitate trust encompass creating a minimal structure and ground rules to
provide security, equity, and fairness. Initial trust is an enabling factor for
successful partnering. But trust is not created once and for all, Building
trust is a social process that needs to be managed, maintained and supported by
positive experiences, both internally and externally, throughout the whole
partnering process (Glasbergen,

According to
Glasbergen’s paper, exploring collaborative advantage is the second rung of the
collaborative process ladder. It is logical for any entity to be able to see
some form of advantage in a collaboration that would make it take steps towards
forming one. There is naturally a lot of effort and resources required in
forming partnerships and for an actor to take up this process requires that
they identify an advantage which would not be possible without the help of the
partners and they identify the collaboration as fair and unbiased.
Additionally, actors often have fundamentally different roles and core values
in society. The collaboration process leads to role conflict as the collective
goal of a collaboration may not be completely in line with an individual
actors. For example, for a business, economic profit is the main driving force.
For a business, joining a collaboration that works to protect the environment,
there would have to be a distinct advantage. For each partner, the
opportunities should outweigh the risks (Glasbergen, 2011).

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When trust and the reciprocal relationship are somewhat developed,
partners can make a contract with which partners state that they formally
invest in each other. The contract can comprise a set of rules, mutual
obligations, problem definitions and how the partnership interacts with other
organizations. It also contains the decision-making processes, monitoring, and
enforcement. Contracts require some form of trust and stability between the
actors. Glasbergen correctly states that there always need to be some form of
trust to formalize a partnership. Contracts can be more rule-based than
principle based and one will be more extensive than another contract, but there
always will be some formalization. The contract in a partnership will not be
different from a normal contract, except for free-riding. This usually results
in expulsion from the partnership. This can cause credibility and social
scrutiny for the expulsed member (Glasbergen, 2011). 


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