The function of work in society is importantissue of discussion in the last few years. The essence of work is changing quickly and weshould consider ourselves developers of new era. Moreover, some believes theword job has become ancient. (Bridges, 1994; Arthur and Rousseau, 1996),Furthermore, job certainty has decreased and unqualified worker has increase inthe work force (Ritzer, 1998; Levin et al.
, 1990). Some commentators even believethat work is vanishing or a major portion of the population (Rifkin, 1995;Aronowitz and Cutler, 1998). Some believes that America is producing highlyskilled workers of different professions (Handy, 1989; Barley, 1996; Pink,1998). Some debates that most of the claims are exaggerated, these peoplebelieve that the change in the nature of work is happening at a slow rate andsociety is adapting to the change is geographic concentration, technology andemployment operation (Farber, 1995).
The demand for labor is derived demand as they are needed toproduce goods and services, so to understand the changing nature of work onehas to start with the way product market have been changing. Globalization andfree trade has increase competition thus, causing changes in the form ofreduction on prices and therefore on labor and other production costs andincreased pressure to compete in tasks quickly, innovation, variety.(Cappelli et. al.
, 1997). Deregulation in serviceindustries has cause barrier to entry to decrease as a result number of newentrants are increasing as a result cost of structures has decreased asoutdated technology have no sunk cost. Moreover, utilize work system andemployment contracts rely on nonstandard employment arrangements that causesrisk with market uncertainty from the firm to workforce (Belzer, 1994; Keefeand Batt, 1997; Lipsky and Donn, 1987).In addition to theincrease in price completion, markets now need to increase their resources andincrease the rate of development and innovate new products. Moreover, they needto produce different varieties of product.
ProdBottom of Formuct cycle times havedeclined significantly in recent years (Fine, 1998), and batch production hasrisen. U.S. firms due to experimenting with a wide variety of new forms of workorganization (Appelbaum and Batt, 1994; Cappelli et al., 1997).
Researchershave paid less attention to how financial markets influence work structuresthan to the effects of product markets. Yet capital markets have always beenrecognized as having a major influence on the organizational forms that evolvein industries and societies (Chandler, 1977; Roe, 1994; Aoki, 1988).Furthermore,improvements in technology have had enormous effects on the workplace and howwork is conducted.
Technology and work are related to each other (Baba, 1995):work is the processes by which humans convert resources into outputs(Applebaum, 1992), technologies are the means by which the conversion is done(Perrow, 1967). Technology defines the ways how a person does his work. Generally,advancement in technology has three effects on work and occupationalstructures. It creates new jobs but also eliminates some existing jobs.Moreover, it helps increases the skills required on some jobs and decreases theskills of others.In case of Morgan-moe’s situation they had to close down storesdue to poor region’s manufacturing economy and had to fire many employees astheir profit was declining. As a result, it can be said that changes ineconomic situation can lead to change in work force.