The function of work in society is important
issue of discussion in the last few years. The essence of work is changing quickly and we
should consider ourselves developers of new era. Moreover, some believes the
word job has become ancient. (Bridges, 1994; Arthur and Rousseau, 1996),
Furthermore, job certainty has decreased and unqualified worker has increase in
the work force (Ritzer, 1998; Levin et al., 1990). Some commentators even believe
that work is vanishing or a major portion of the population (Rifkin, 1995;
Aronowitz and Cutler, 1998). Some believes that America is producing highly
skilled workers of different professions (Handy, 1989; Barley, 1996; Pink,
1998). Some debates that most of the claims are exaggerated, these people
believe that the change in the nature of work is happening at a slow rate and
society is adapting to the change is geographic concentration, technology and
employment operation (Farber, 1995). The demand for labor is derived demand as they are needed to
produce goods and services, so to understand the changing nature of work one
has to start with the way product market have been changing. Globalization and
free trade has increase competition thus, causing changes in the form of
reduction on prices and therefore on labor and other production costs and
increased pressure to compete in tasks quickly, innovation, variety.
(Cappelli et. al., 1997). Deregulation in service
industries has cause barrier to entry to decrease as a result number of new
entrants are increasing as a result cost of structures has decreased as
outdated technology have no sunk cost. Moreover, utilize work system and
employment contracts rely on nonstandard employment arrangements that causes
risk with market uncertainty from the firm to workforce (Belzer, 1994; Keefe
and Batt, 1997; Lipsky and Donn, 1987).
In addition to the
increase in price completion, markets now need to increase their resources and
increase the rate of development and innovate new products. Moreover, they need
to produce different varieties of product. ProdBottom of Formuct cycle times have
declined significantly in recent years (Fine, 1998), and batch production has
risen. U.S. firms due to experimenting with a wide variety of new forms of work
organization (Appelbaum and Batt, 1994; Cappelli et al., 1997).
have paid less attention to how financial markets influence work structures
than to the effects of product markets. Yet capital markets have always been
recognized as having a major influence on the organizational forms that evolve
in industries and societies (Chandler, 1977; Roe, 1994; Aoki, 1988).
improvements in technology have had enormous effects on the workplace and how
work is conducted. Technology and work are related to each other (Baba, 1995):
work is the processes by which humans convert resources into outputs
(Applebaum, 1992), technologies are the means by which the conversion is done
(Perrow, 1967). Technology defines the ways how a person does his work. Generally,
advancement in technology has three effects on work and occupational
structures. It creates new jobs but also eliminates some existing jobs.
Moreover, it helps increases the skills required on some jobs and decreases the
skills of others.
In case of Morgan-moe’s situation they had to close down stores
due to poor region’s manufacturing economy and had to fire many employees as
their profit was declining. As a result, it can be said that changes in
economic situation can lead to change in work force.