The manner. For example, referring to place the

The poem’s foregrounding can be attained through deviation and parallelism as Boris Tomashevsky (1965) notes; “The old and habitual must be spoken of as if it were new and unusual. One must speak of the ordinary as if it were unfamiliar”. The defamiliarisation forces readers to look, allowing them to see things from a different, unusual perspective through methods that are linguistically noticeable. In terms of internal deviation, which is something that breaks the established patterns within a text, Bishop creates grammatical deviations; rhetorical questions throughout the second and fourth stanzas, for instance; “must we dream our dreams and have them, too?” and other similar rhetorical questions. This use of language differs from the established pattern Bishop has created within the text, further portraying the sombre tone of the message. The speaker conveys their pessimistic views on travelling and how they seem better in ‘dreams’. In terms of the deixis of the poem, Keith Green (1992) discusses “Deixis and the Poetic Persona” which is a classification depending on the deictic centre. The deictic expressions are anchored to the “point zero” of the poem, whether it be centred around time, place, person, or situation, usually in an egocentric manner. For example, referring to place the speaker mentions their position as “here”; in juxtaposition to “home”. This adds semantic density to the lexicon as the narrator cannot identify with what they are beholding; the world in which they find themselves seems fake and foreign. Likewise, the first half of the poem is strongly suggestive of sight, using deictic expressions to manipulate the readers’ senses to make contact with the desired imagery. Phrases such as “watching strangers”, “to see the sun…”, “to stare at”, and “at any view” subtly focuses the reader to pay attention to the scene around them. Each specific expression indicates an attempt made by the speaker to highlight their surroundings.


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