The American PsychiatricAssociation’s proposed definition of specific learning disability (“specificlearning disorder”) for the DSM-5 reflectscurrent thinking and best practice in learning disabilities.It conceptualises learning disability(LD) as well as proposes identification criteria to supplant the discreditedaptitude achievement discrepancy formula.Specific learning disability means a disorder in whichone or more basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in usinglanguage, spoken or written, which have manifested itself to an imperfectability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or to do mathematicalcalculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, braininjury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia and developmental aphasia.Attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
It is characterized by problems paying attention, excessive activity, or difficulty controllingbehaviour which isnot appropriate for a person’s age.ADHD is a disorderwhich includes difficulty in paying attention(inattention), difficulty instaying focused, difficulty in controlling one’s behaviour (disruptivebehaviour), impulsivity and hyperactivity.ADHD and SLD are distinct conditionsthat frequently overlap, thereby causing confusion about the nature of thesetwo conditions. It is estimated that 20-30% of those with learning disabilitieshave coexisting ADHD.Coexisting means that two conditionsADHD and SLD, can occur together, but they do not cause each other.
Learning disabilities can include developmentalspeech and language disorders and academic skills disorders.ADHD, however, is not considered a learningdisability, but it very frequently causes academic difficulties.Since ADHD and SLD overlap eachother it is difficult to diagnose them separately. ADHD requires specificmedication as it is a neurodevelopmental disorder whereas SLD requires bothstrengthening the skills and developing a learning strategy specificallykeeping in mind the child’s strength.Misdiagnosis of either ADHA orSLD and subsequent treatment will not help the child, moreover might evenworsen his or her condition.With this regard, we areproposing this study to help in proper diagnosis and differentiation of ADHDand SLD in children of rural educational setup.