The as neocolonialism. The combination of aggressive black

way the colonial masters remained in control of the independent state could
have triggered Ngugi’s sentiments. After the country was given independence, the
British and other European countries seemed to control most of the state’s
dockets; even the peak leadership structure. The country still relied on the
Western nations to go on with her process of building a new country — a
country that does not contain any white element of Europeans (Mhango 18). However, the prolonged stay and availability of whites
in the country resulted to further dictatorship from these European nations
through their leaders. Some Europeans had possession of lands in the country,
commonly known as the ‘white highlands’, but their influence in the country was
against the desire and wish of Kenyans. The conditions given by the European
countries to deliver specific services like health in the country were enough
to term the situation as neocolonialism.

combination of aggressive black leaders who prized and valued themselves of
snatching power from the colonial masters and the continued exploitation and
control of the country by the European nations through the leaders are enough
to explain the inner feelings of Ngugi regarding his sentiment “the
neocolonial stage of imperialism.” This feeling propelled him to write a
novel that addresses a certain “Devil” that needs to be driven out of
the country through mass action to sanctify the nation from the imminent evils
it has brought to the country. Celena Kusch in her book “Literary Analysis:
The Basics” explores several literary terminologies that can be used to
exhibit how the “Devil” uses formal elements to execute its imaginative
and critical project through variety of figurative language in the novel.

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of the most profound elements is the metaphor. According to Kusch, “a
metaphor asks readers to suspend limited, logical definitions to create new,
intuitive definitions by comparison…compares unrelated objects to convey a
direct understanding of characteristics…” (Kusch 47). In the novel
“Devil on the Cross”, there are several metaphors used to convey
hidden messages on the notions. The metaphor is used to criticize the
government undertakings which are termed as ‘devils’ in the novel. According to
the novel, these devils in Kenya include colonialism, capitalism, imperialism,
and neocolonialism. These devils are present in the formal structures of the
government, and they are very perilous. The only ‘crosses’ that can be used to
hang them are independence, unity, and communism. At the beginning of the
novel, the author says, “the Devil who would lead us into the blindness of
heart and the deafness of the mind should be crucified…” (Ngugi 1).


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