The After repeated pairings of the food being


The idea of classical conditioning was first proposed by Ivan Pavlov
(1849 – 1946) who discovered that dogs could be conditioned to salivate to the
sound of a bell, if that sound was repeatedly presented at the same time as they
were given food. Originally Pavlov studied the digestive system, he
experimented on dogs by strapping them in a harness and placed different types
of food in their mouths, and through a tube that was surgically inserted in
their cheeks, measured the flow of saliva. However, after repeated sessions the
dogs would salivate before the food was put in their mouths which was a
phenomenon Pavlov labelled as ‘Psychic salivation’.   Pavlov’s studies of digestion demonstrated
that salivating when food is presented is a basic neural reflex which requires
no learning, in classical conditioning terms this is known as the unconditioned
response (UCR), the food is the unconditioned stimulus (UCS), this is a
stimulus that triggers the unconditioned response. The bell is the neutral
stimulus as initially before conditioning, the bell produced no response in the
dog. After repeated pairings of the food being presented whilst the bell was
rung eventually, the dog salivated at the sound of the bell alone. Therefore,
the bell became the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the dog’s salivation in
response to the bell was the conditioned response (CR). 

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