School of thought: A group of scholars who become associated ideologically with a system of ideas,
System: An orderly and comprehensive compilation of principles facts, and methods that describe and explain identified or observed phenomena.
Ex. Hulls Tolmams systems are components of the neobehavioristic school of thought
Psyc VoluntarismSchool of Behaviorism Thought Functionalism
Paradigm: A fundamental model or scheme that organizes our view of something.
Mechanism: natural processes are determined and explanation by the laws of physics and chemistry.
Galileo: Matter was composed of corpuscles or atoms that contact but by forces that acted to attract or repel the atoms.
Newton: Movement was communicated not by actual physical contact but by forces that acted to attract or repel the atoms.
The operation of the universe was: orderly, smooth and predictable and was subject to the laws of measurement.
Materialism: Universe described in physical terms and explained by natural an physical properties of matter and energy.
Something to ponder: Perhaps all perception exists only in terms of secondary qualities. Therefore, maybe nothing exists in and of itself.
George Berkeley …Mentalism: All knowledge is a function of mental phenomena. Knowledge depends on the perceiver. Objects exist because God perceives objects.
David Hume…Impressions: Basic elements of mental life. Similar to sensations and perceptions.
Ideas: Mental experiences in the observance of the stimulating object.
Law of Resemblance and Law of Contiguity
David Hartley…1. Contiguity2. Repetition (practice)
Note: Hartley took Newton’s idea of vibrations of particles in the universe and applied it to the nerves and the brain. Vibrations in nerves (solid not hollows) transmitted impulses to one point in the body to another. This leads to vibrations in the brain that were the physiological counterpart of ideas. MECHANISM = modern neuroscience.
James Mill …The mind was a machine. It was operated on by external physical forces run by internal forces. Radical recluctionism No creative function of the mind: associations were automatic passive, mechanical.
John Sturat Mill (Mental chemistry)…Creative synthesis: The mind played an active role in the association of ideas. Complex ideas were not simply the summation of simple ideas. Complex ideas are more than the passive sum of simple ideas.
Bessel…personal differences in observation time s would be found among all astronomers, a phenomenon come to be called personal equation.
J,muller…stimulation of a particular nerve leads to characteristic of sensation.
M. Hall. & Flourence….cerebrum=voluntary movementspinal cord=reflex action
Medulla=respiration Cerebellum=movement Midbrain=vision / audition
Extripation…function of the brain removing a part to find the function by flurence.