Sarcomastigophora covered by cilia like flagella. (ii) Nuclei


Sarcomastigophora (i) Locomotory organelles mostly pseudopodia or flagella or both. (ii) Nucleus one or more but monomorphic. Class 1: Mastigophora or Flagellata (Gr. mastix, whip; phoros, bearing) (i) Simple primitive with firm pellicle.

(ii) Locomotory organelles one or more fine thread like flagella. (iii) Nutrition autotrophic (chlorophyll bearing) or heterotrophic or both or parasitic. Examples: Euglena, Noctiluca, Trypanosoma etc. Class 2: Sarcodina or Rhizopoda (i) Body has no definite shape (amoeboid), without definite pellicle. (ii) Locomotion by pseudopodia as lobopodia, filopodia or reticulopodia without axial filaments.

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(iii) Nutrition holozoic or saprozoic. Example: Amoeba, Entamoeba, Actinophrys etc. Class 3: Opalinata (i) Entire body is covered by cilia like flagella. (ii) Nuclei 2 many but monomorphic. (iii) Intestinal parasites of frogs and Toads. Examples: Opalina, Zelleriella. 2.

Supbhylum (B): Sporozoa (Apicomplexa) (i) Exclusively endoparasites. (ii) Life cycle is complex and spores usually formed, but have no polar filaments. (iii) No specialized locomotory organelles. (iv) At some stage of life, an apical complex of ring like, tubular, filamentous organelles is formed. Class 1: Telospora (i) Spores without polar capsule and filaments. (ii) Sporozoits, elongated, narrow, naked or encysted. Examples: Plasmodium, Monocystis. etc.

Class 2: Piroplasmea (i) Spores absent, sporozoites naked and ovoid. (ii) Minute intracellular parasites of RBC of catties. Examples: Toxoplasma, Babesia, etc. 3. Subphylum (C): Cnidospora (i) Intracellular endoparasites. No locomotory organelles. (ii) Spores with polar filaments. Class 1: Myosporea (i) Spore large with 1 to 4 polar filaments, develops from several nuclei.

(ii) Spore wall is bivalved or trivalved. Examples: Ceratomyxa, Myxidium. Etc. Class 2: Microsporea (i) Spores small with 1 to 2 polar filaments, develop from a single nucleus. (ii) Spore-wall univalved.

Example: Nosema. Etc. 4. Subphylum (D): Ciliophora (i) Largest group of protozoans which are structurally most complex. (ii)Locomotory organelles cilia or ciliary organelles. (iii) Nuclei two or more and dimorphisn found.

(iv) Reproduction asexual mainly by transverse fission and sexual mainly by conjugation. Class 1: Ciliata (i) Locomotory organelles numerous hair like cilia present throughout life. (ii) One or two contractile vacuoles present even in marine and parasitic types.

Example: Paramecium, Vorticella. Balantidium.etc.

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