Thesis: Stonehenge was built by the Early Britons. With the evidence at hand, the Early Britons even though they have few writings and less proof of mathematical ingenuity seem to have built Stonehenge.

I. Who
A. Legends of Who Built Stonehenge
1. Devil1
a. Heel Stone
i. Thrown at fleeing priest
ii. Has indent today
b. Woman in Ireland
2. Merlin
a. King Ambrosius2
b. “Dance of Giants”3
c. Merlin = (?) Myrddin4
B. Early Britons5
1. Dismissed by Inigo Jones
a. No knowledge of building
b. If Romans found any buildings, would have written about it
2. “Ignorant savages” to Jones
3. Actual possible builders
C. Romans
1. Possessed skill and knowledge6
2. Drawings of Stonehenge and Roman Theater similar
a. Equilateral Triangles
b. Units of measure matched
c. Matched in proportion and shape if two stones were added
3. Not them6, 7
a. Too primitive
b. No inscriptions
D. Druids
1. Not much historically known
2. Celts fled to England from France to continue way of life
3. Human sacrifice8
a. Appease Gods
b. Tell Future
4. Priests to Early Britons
5. Also ruled out by Jones8
a. Did not know mathematics
b. Had none of the skills of architecture except philosophy and astronomy
6. Could have worshipped there- NOT build it9, 10
a. Stones standing by 1500 BCE
b. Before Druids came to Briton
E. Random Possibilities11
1. Stones really crushed held by “marvelous” cement
2. Lost Continent of Atlantis
3. Indians of North America
a. Similarities between Indian mounds and platform mounds of Silbury Hill
b. Stonehenge similar to base of burial mounds in N. America
II. Way
A. Structure
1. Basic12
a. 91 stones today
b. Around 140 originally
2. 4 Elements13
a. Outermost circle
i. 30 columns of Sandstone
ii. Topped with 30 or more lintel stones
b. Bluestones-Outer
i. 5 trilithons (gate like structure)
ii. Horseshoe shape
c. Bluestones-Inner
i. Smaller than Outer
ii. Horseshoe shape
d. Bank and Ditch
i. Around whole thing
ii. 56 white chalk patches (2-6ft across) outside
3. Aubrey Holes14
a. Many contained bones
i. funeral rites possibly
ii. link to Druids
b. Believed to be filled in and emptied at certain points of time
4. 4 Station Stones15
a. Standing pillars
b. Indicate corners of rectangle
c. May have helped align circle structures
5. Heel Stone16
a. Weighs 35 tons
b. Standing by itself
c. Sun rises over every year
B. Construction
1. “Primitive tools and techniques were used with remarkable success”
2. Used17
a. Deer antler picks
b. Ox shoulder shovels
c. Flint hammers
d. Leather or reed baskets and ropes
3. Digging of Ditches18, 19
a. Circle shape
i. Sharp stick tied to cord stuck in ground, and scratched soil
ii. No evidence, but assumed
b. Ditch
i. Antler picks hammed into chalk
ii. Chalk carried to bank and dumped
iii. Diggers removed over 3500 cubic yards
iv. 100 diggers and 200 carriers could have completed it in 35 days
4. Builders
a. Evidence suggests farmers and traders20
i. Not primitive and backwards
ii. Highly organized
iii. Skilled in many crafts
iv. Able to work with sophisticated mathematical concepts
b. Archaeologists still not sure who built it.

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5. Moving Stones
a. Bluestones
i. Came from Wales
ii. Land21
– Placed on sleds
– Sleds rolled over logs
– Long line of logs, last brought to front
– Did NOT use wheels
did not know about (?)
no evidence of usage
iii. Water22
– 3 small canoes of wood
– Raft lowered 9in. in experiment
– 4 men needed to pole along shallow water
iv. Archaeologists concluded Bluestones moved 250 miles by rolling and rafting
b. Sarsen Stones23
i. Not from Wales
ii. 30 tons each, 6 times larger and heaver than Bluestones
iii. Only needed to move 20 miles
iv. Quarry uphill of Stonehenge-17 miles gentle slope
v. Pulled on sleds only in winter- ice, left in spring
vi. 25 people could have moved them
vii. Chores fewer in winter-more time to moving stones
6. Shaping Stones24
a. Methods
i. Driving wooden wedges into cracks-pouring water in cracks
ii. Chipping
– Heat stone
– Pour cold water on rock
– Hit stone
– Man could chip off 6 cubic in. in an hour
b. 3 mill cubic inches removed from just Sarsens
c. 500 thousand hours just shaping stone
d. Also needed 1000’s of hours to chip, grind, and smooth
e. Right shape
i. Chipped long shallow groves into stone
– 3in deep, 9in wide
– Ran length of stone
ii. Ridges left hammered out
f. Not all stones had final shaping and polishing- many left in rough state
IV. Stonehenge’s Astronomical Connections25
V. Stonehenge Today26
A. Government protected monument
B. People come every year
C. Archaeological digs are under way or starting
1 Roop 32-34
2 Roop 25-26
3 Roop 27-29
4 Hawkins 6
5 Roop 36
6 Roop 37-38
7 Crystal
8 Balfour 15-16
9 Roop 38-39
10 Roop 45-46
11 Roop 47
12 Papanek 60
13 Papanek 60-61
14 Papanek 61
15 Papanek 61-62
16 Papanek 62
17 Roop 74
18 Roop 75
19 Balfour 112
20 Branley 12
21 Roop 77-78
22 Roop 78-79
23 Balfour


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