StonehengeThesis: Stonehenge was built by the Early Britons. With the evidence at hand, the Early Britons even though they have few writings and less proof of mathematical ingenuity seem to have built Stonehenge.IntroductionI. WhoA. Legends of Who Built Stonehenge1. Devil1a.
Heel Stonei. Thrown at fleeing priestii. Has indent todayb. Woman in Ireland2.
Merlina. King Ambrosius2b. “Dance of Giants”3c. Merlin = (?) Myrddin4B. Early Britons51.
Dismissed by Inigo Jonesa. No knowledge of buildingb. If Romans found any buildings, would have written about it2. “Ignorant savages” to Jones3. Actual possible buildersC. Romans1.
Possessed skill and knowledge62. Drawings of Stonehenge and Roman Theater similara. Equilateral Trianglesb. Units of measure matchedc. Matched in proportion and shape if two stones were added3. Not them6, 7a. Too primitiveb.
No inscriptionsD. Druids1. Not much historically known2.
Celts fled to England from France to continue way of life3. Human sacrifice8a. Appease Godsb. Tell Future4. Priests to Early Britons5. Also ruled out by Jones8a.
Did not know mathematicsb. Had none of the skills of architecture except philosophy and astronomy6. Could have worshipped there- NOT build it9, 10a. Stones standing by 1500 BCEb. Before Druids came to BritonE.
Random Possibilities111. Stones really crushed held by “marvelous” cement2. Lost Continent of Atlantis3. Indians of North Americaa. Similarities between Indian mounds and platform mounds of Silbury Hillb. Stonehenge similar to base of burial mounds in N. AmericaII.
WayA. Structure1. Basic12a. 91 stones todayb. Around 140 originally2. 4 Elements13a. Outermost circlei. 30 columns of Sandstoneii.
Topped with 30 or more lintel stonesb. Bluestones-Outeri. 5 trilithons (gate like structure)ii. Horseshoe shapec. Bluestones-Inneri. Smaller than Outerii.
Horseshoe shaped. Bank and Ditchi. Around whole thingii. 56 white chalk patches (2-6ft across) outside3. Aubrey Holes14a. Many contained bonesi. funeral rites possiblyii. link to Druidsb.
Believed to be filled in and emptied at certain points of time4. 4 Station Stones15a. Standing pillarsb. Indicate corners of rectanglec. May have helped align circle structures5. Heel Stone16a. Weighs 35 tonsb. Standing by itselfc.
Sun rises over every yearB. Construction1. “Primitive tools and techniques were used with remarkable success”2.
Used17a. Deer antler picksb. Ox shoulder shovelsc. Flint hammersd. Leather or reed baskets and ropes3.
Digging of Ditches18, 19a. Circle shapei. Sharp stick tied to cord stuck in ground, and scratched soilii. No evidence, but assumed b. Ditchi. Antler picks hammed into chalkii. Chalk carried to bank and dumpediii. Diggers removed over 3500 cubic yardsiv.
100 diggers and 200 carriers could have completed it in 35 days4. Buildersa. Evidence suggests farmers and traders20i. Not primitive and backwardsii.
Highly organizediii. Skilled in many craftsiv. Able to work with sophisticated mathematical conceptsb. Archaeologists still not sure who built it.5. Moving Stonesa. Bluestonesi.
Came from Walesii. Land21- Placed on sleds- Sleds rolled over logs- Long line of logs, last brought to front- Did NOT use wheelsdid not know about (?)no evidence of usageiii. Water22- 3 small canoes of wood- Raft lowered 9in.
in experiment- 4 men needed to pole along shallow wateriv. Archaeologists concluded Bluestones moved 250 miles by rolling and raftingb. Sarsen Stones23i. Not from Walesii.
30 tons each, 6 times larger and heaver than Bluestonesiii. Only needed to move 20 milesiv. Quarry uphill of Stonehenge-17 miles gentle slopev. Pulled on sleds only in winter- ice, left in springvi. 25 people could have moved themvii. Chores fewer in winter-more time to moving stones6. Shaping Stones24a.
Methodsi. Driving wooden wedges into cracks-pouring water in cracksii. Chipping- Heat stone – Pour cold water on rock- Hit stone- Man could chip off 6 cubic in. in an hourb. 3 mill cubic inches removed from just Sarsensc. 500 thousand hours just shaping stoned. Also needed 1000’s of hours to chip, grind, and smoothe.
Right shapei. Chipped long shallow groves into stone- 3in deep, 9in wide- Ran length of stoneii. Ridges left hammered outf.
Not all stones had final shaping and polishing- many left in rough stateIV. Stonehenge’s Astronomical Connections25V. Stonehenge Today26A. Government protected monumentB. People come every yearC. Archaeological digs are under way or startingConclusionEndnotes1 Roop 32-342 Roop 25-263 Roop 27-294 Hawkins 65 Roop 366 Roop 37-387 Crystal8 Balfour 15-169 Roop 38-3910 Roop 45-4611 Roop 4712 Papanek 60 13 Papanek 60-6114 Papanek 6115 Papanek 61-6216 Papanek 6217 Roop 7418 Roop 7519 Balfour 11220 Branley 1221 Roop 77-7822 Roop 78-7923 Balfour