iii. that was established by the British rulers


iii. By educating people about the need to protect wildlife.

While the government is ensuring for wildlife protection with rules and regulations, different non­governmental organizations are working in parallel towards wildlife protection.

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NGO Efforts:

A number of national and international organizations are working towards improving the state of wildlife existence. Some of these voluntary organizations include: Bombay Natural History Society: The Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS) is one of the largest non-government organizations in the Indian sub-continent that is working towards nature conservation research.

It was founded in 1883 and undertakes collection of information and specimen of flora and fauna in the Indian subcontinent. It is also involved in preparing sound conservation programmes. Wildlife Protection Society of India, Dehradun: The Wildlife Protection Society of India, Dehradun (Uttarakhand), was founded in 1994 by wildlife photographer Belinda Wright. This NGO collaborates with state governments to monitor illegal wildlife trade and to provide them with hands-on training and support to combat poaching and the illegal wildlife trade. World Wildlife Fund, India: The World Wildlife Fund, India was set up in 1969 and has been involved in wildlife and nature conservation.

The NGO addresses issues like survival of species and habitats, climate change and environmental education.

Government Efforts:

The state and central governments have been promoting wildlife protection by laying down suitable Wildlife Acts. These include: i. The Madras Wild Elephant Preservation Act, 1873 that was established by the British rulers before independence. ii. The All India Elephant Preservation Act, 1879. iii.

The Wild Birds and Animals Protection Act, 1912 to protect certain wild birds and animals like the Bengal Rhinoceros. iv. Bengal Rhinoceros Preservation Act, 1932. v. Indian Board for Wildlife, 1952.

vi. Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. vii. National Wildlife Action Plan, 1982.

viii. Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960. ix. The People for Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) was established in 1980. Wildlife Protection Act 1972: Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972 was enacted with the objective of effectively protecting the wildlife of this country, to control poaching, smuggling and illegal trade in wildlife and its derivatives, and to establish sanctuaries and national parks. The Act was amended in January 2003 and punishment and penalty for offences under the Act have been made more stringent. Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960: This Act deals with the laws relating to the prevention of cruelty to animals and to prevent the infliction of unnecessary pain or suffering on animals.

This Act also directs the government to establish Animal Welfare Board of India for animal welfare and protecting animals from unnecessary pain or suffering. The Act also made provisions for the following: i. Punishment for treating animals cruelly. ii. Committee for control and supervision of experiments on animals.

iii. Restriction on exhibition and training of performing animals.

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