Should I Stay or Should I Go?Russia hasbecome a huge donor for labor migrants from Central Asia.
Low wages andunemployment in Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan have made people totravel to the North – to the capital of the former Soviet Union – in which these nations were connected by thesame language and history, shared one land and had not frontiers between eachother. Nowadays, these states have become independent since the collapse of theUSSR, that they belonged to, a little more than some 25 years ago. Currently, RussianFederation is facing a big demographical crisis, especially the declining ofthe working-age group. Thus, there is a need to involve a cheap working classfrom abroad. Due to having a visa-free regime between those states, the Russianstate is easily accessible for the citizens of Central Asia. However, theimmigrants should always extend and prolong their staying in order to obtainthe right to work in Russia. Some experts on demographic and migration trends ofRussian Federation claim that there is a need for labor migration, however, theseviews are not always shared by Russian citizens in general.
According to Myhre(2012), the migration corridor that is formed between Russia and the citizensof Central Asian countries is considered one of the largest in the presentworld and among them Tajikistan is considered the second in terms of the amountof citizens residing in Russia (p.12). The Tajik labor migrants that strive tomigrate for Russia to find a new life, always have a bad economic situation intheir home country that causes for unemployment, salaries and poverty, whichmakes them dissatisfied with a state and authority itself. Although economicproblems remain the main reason for migration, some migrate for political andenvironmental reasons, too. The economicsituation that causes many issues in a country, such as lack of jobs, low wagesand poverty, remains the main reason for leaving Tajikistan. Therefore, if wetalk about the migrants that come for the economic reasons, we should use theterm – economic migration. In economic migration, the migrant is usually ayoung man or a young female in search of a temporary job and intending toreturn home once certain savings have been reached. (Myhre, 2012, p.
16)Furthermore, they are convinced that in their home country these conveniencesare seen less. The economic factors of Tajikistan have not been stable for morethan 20 years already. During these years it has not reached its zenith even indecreasing of one of these problems. On the one hand, the government is notable to contribute toward its unstable factors of economy that the populationcould be engaged in making them better.
On the other hand, Russia provides themigrants with more opportunities and believes that they serve to make thecountry more attractive. Therefore, the state’s contribution to the economy andits issues might go in favor of reducing the unemployment and poverty. In Tajikistan,there are many unemployment because the lacking of work field. Unemployment isconsidered a major problem not only in Tajikistan, but the countries of CentralAsia.
Many Tajik migrants complain of not having a good environment to work intheir job fields or having a little salary for doing so. Tajik government does notcreate reliable work fields especially for the youth in the country. Encouragingthe Tajik government to create jobs for its youth is highly unrealistic,because most men that migrate from the country are young people with wellreasoning skills. Unemployment levels largely explain the country’s migrationtrends. In 2016, Tajikistan had the highest unemployment rate in the region at12.6 % and the number of unemployed citizens reached 243,000 in Tajikistan,however these numbers were increasing over time (Ryazantsev, 2016, p.3).
Russiaas a developed country, for their part, has a need in many economic and socialsectors of its regions. Only by having different sort of jobs with higher salariesand a better standard for living, Russia attracts more young labor migrants ofTajikistan. That is why, many unemployed from developing countries move to anydeveloped countries in order to find a better job and a potential foremployment. Finding a job inRussia will probably lead Tajik migrants to have a higher salary and a modernworking environment. Nevertheless, if a country might succeedin dealing with a high rate of jobshortages and creates enough jobs, it does not imply that the citizens will gethigh salaries.
Low wages are another issue that worsens the economic situationand causes many residents to migrate for Russia. The disparity among thecountries of Central Asia shows clearly the illustration of the situation. Inabsolute terms, Tajikistan offers the lowest average monthly wage at just $81,while its neighbor country Kyrgyzstan offers $155 per month (Ryazantsev,2016, p.4). Tajikistan reportedlyhas the lowest average rate among the CIS (Commonwealth of IndependentStates) nations (Ryazantsev,2016, p.4).
Not all professions inthe state have a regular salary, except those who work in the school or ashealth workers. Most regular jobs in Tajikistan do not have highsalaries, but in comparison to other countries the cost of living in Tajikistanis usually quite low. The average of peoples’ salary should be enough to coverthe costs of food and accommodation, but there will not be some money left overfor travel, leisure and running a new business.
That is what keeps most elderpeople to stay in their land, however the young generation seems not sharingthis notion and strives to make their lives better by making greater affluence.Therefore, Tajikistan’s economic conditions are not able to overcome thisproblem at the moment, because it takes more time. As a result, Tajik migrantsstill will be more attracted in high salaries of Russian state.