SheffLink Case StudyOrganisationalBehaviour (OB) refers to an approach by which individuals and groups act andrelate with one another in the organisation.
There is a variety of factorsinfluencing these acts and relations, which ultimately result in OB issues, suchas leadership, perception, conflict, motivation, groups and teams, within theorganisation. This report aims to use a specific research design, case study,for examining OB issues within SheffLink, a warehousing and parcel DeliveryCompany that specialises in the South Yorkshire distribution market. Byreviewing this case study, the main OB issues have been identified, including leadership,perception and motivation, and this report explains their impact on thecompany’s behaviour and recommends ways to resolve issues identified.
OrganisationalBehaviour Issues and Their ImpactInthe give case study, perception and decision making is the main issue becauseof Sue Baxter who felt keeping costs under even tighter control could be bestfor the company. She thought her strategy of ‘staff changes’ can begin thechange process positively. One of the main concerns is about the decisions thatSue had appeared to have taken without any consultation with the Board, staffmembers and labour union. It suggests that Sue did not follow the decision-makingapproach that involves going with a certain option from among a variety ofchoices available. The perception of Sue was that subordinates had no ideasworthy of any deliberation, and thus Joe Briggs, chief union officer, wascompletely shocked by her aggressive behaviour and totally disbelieving of herbelieve about workers. Ultimately, her decision about change resulted inconflict between warehousing and parcel delivery departments. The warehousingteam was dysfunctional with a high employee turnover, because of strict workenvironment.
To make matters worse, the work was generally monotonous andrepetitive with no incentive to work faster and more efficiently. The warehouseteam felt that their work was not valued; that they were not valued enough andany recognition awards always went to other departments, never to ‘Warehouse’.These difficulties fuelled frequent disagreements between members of his teamand this was felt to affect the quality of service to other departments,particularly to the Delivery team. Hari knew all this but as team leader, hisattitude was very laid back. OrganisationalBehaviour Theories and Their EffectivenessByreviewing the case study on organisational behaviour (OB) associated withSheffLink, leadership; perception and decision making, and motivation have beenidentified as the main OB issues within the organisation. Perceptionand Decision Making· AttributionTheoryThistheory was designed to describe how people are judged differently relying upon themeaning given to a given behaviour (Martinko, Harvey and Douglas, 2007).
According to this theory, when an individual’s behaviour is observed, it is ascertainwhether it was caused internally or externally (Martinko, Harvey and Douglas,2007). The behaviours caused internally are thought to be under the individual’spersonal control, whereas externally behaviour emerges due to outside factors;that is, an individual is pushed into the behaviour by the situation. Nevertheless,that determination relies upon distinctiveness, consensus and consistencyfactors (Martinko, Harvey and Douglas, 2007).
Asan essential function of management, decision making involves preferring andadopting a certain option from among a variety of choices available.· RationalDecision-Making ModelThismodel explains the ways individuals should act or behave with the aim of maximisingsome outcome by following steps (Sinclair and Ashkanasy, 2005):1. Identify and definethe issue 2. Recognise the decisioncriteria3. Weight the criteria4.
Bring alternativesinto existence5. Rate every alternativeon each criteria6. Come up with mostfavourable decision MotivationalTheories· Maslow’sHierarchy of Needs Maslowis not the first author to write about motivations in the current humanisticarea, but he is one of the best known. Drawing on the experiences of EltonMayo, Maslow puts forward a hierarchy of needs, through his famous pyramid (Taorminaand Gao, 2013). The approach seduces, by its simplicity, managers and studentswho seize it until making it the main (see the only) key of explanation of themotives of the man.
Maslow explains that man reaches his full psychicdevelopment only by passing through stages that will enable him to motivate andsatisfy, in order (Dye, Mills and Weatherbee, 2005):o Physiologicalneeds (eating, drinking, sleeping),o Psychologicalneeds (living in safety),o Social needs(belonging),o Needs forself-esteem,o Needs ofaccomplishment.Itwas mainly the latter who interested Maslow, who focused on the individual’ssearch for fullness (through paroxysmal experiences). Practitioners haveinterpreted Maslow’s works in their own way, developing the need for minimumsecurity to be met for lower needs (e.g. minimum wage) that would enable theindividual to evolve in his search for higher needs and thus to be moreefficient professionally. (Dye, Mills and Weatherbee, 2005).LeadershipTheories· Personality TraitsThistheory, still current, is defended by Kirkpatrick and Locke who claim to beable to distinguish leaders from non-leaders (Walumbwa and Schaubroeck, 2009). Itsemphasis is on the will to succeed, ambition and tenacity, as well as theproactive ability of leaders.
The set represents the “drive” which isthe ability to control. Leaders are also motivated, upright and confident inthemselves; while being emotionally stable. They are also skilled and know theirjob. · Kurt Lewin’sLeadership TheoriesAccordingto Kurt Lewin, three main styles of leadership can be identified:First,the democratic style through which the participation of all organisationalmembers is encouraged, and the leader plays the role of catalyst. It federatesall the intelligences and puts them at the service of the objectives to bereached. With the evolution of the company towards the model of the managementof human resources, this style appears today as the most valued, since it isthrough it that potentials find a framework of erection and expression.(Billig, 2014)Thenthe autocratic leader favours the expression rather than the group.
The leaderdictates the behaviour to take; he takes and assumes all decisions. All formsof conflict remain latent since they are inhibited by the repressive power ofthe leader. (Billig, 2014)Finally,the laissez-faire style is characterised by the passivity of the leader. Theleader lets all intelligences express him and plays only the role of informantas to the means available. (Billig, 2014)Recommendationsfor SheffLinkSueBaxter as leader of SheffLink needs to be familiar with that the staff members reactto perceptions, not to reality. Thus, employees organise and interpret thesituation they see and experience, and thus the chance of perceptual distortionalways exists. Sue needs to focus strongly how employees, especiallywarehousing staff perceive their employments and management actions. The staffturnover, especially the valuable people, due to a perception that they are notvalued is simply a massive loss to SheffLink.
Jobsatisfaction also can have impacts on OB, mainly by means of perceptions offairness. When staff members perceive everything to be fair, development of trustis the result. Once the trust is developed, employees are always ready to giveeven their voluntary contributions to the organisation.Sueis also recommended to consult the Board and her employees, as studies showthat good leaders and managers may spend up to 70% of their valuable time inthese meetings. Sue needs to spend a considerable amount of her time inidentifying OB problems, formulating the best possible solutions, and ascertainingways to enact the solutions.
Thus, it has been established that theoriesrelated to decisionmaking are effective to adopt, as they assist in making decisions in the bestinterest of employees and of the entire organisation.Suecan also recognise individual differences by following the motivationaltheories. All the motivational theories, discussed earlier, recognise that eachemployee is different, as they have their own different needs, attitudinalpatterns, personality, and other crucial individual factors. Moreover, Sueneeds to match each employee to his or her job. Research evidence reveals themotivational benefits of cautiously matching employees to jobs.
As an instance,For example, people with high achievement should have tasks allowing them topartake in setting achievable yet challenging goals and that involve two mainfactors including autonomy and feedback.Aseach employee has their own different needs, Sue needs to apply her knowledgeabout theoretical concepts of motivation to encourage employees through differentreward systems, including (Taormina and Gao, 2013):o Wage incrementbased on performanceo Pieceworkbonuseso Pay incentivesMoreover,leadership has also been found as the main OB issue in SheffLink. The aspect ofleadership is indeed one of the highly influential factors in OB.
The reason isthat leaders are anticipated to direct the entire organisation in a manner thatmaximises corporate objectives and reduces costs, but with keep employeemotivation in mind. SheffLink needs a leadership through which the organisationmust gain the employees’ voluntary contribution in order to achieveorganisational goals. Thus, this process will be influenced by Sue’s personalityand sense of power as a leader. Further, the key aspect of leadership is motivationas goal will not be achieved if employees are not valued and encouraged, andfor this good performance appraisal is important. ConclusionByusing case study research approach, this report examined the OB issues withinSheffLink and explained their impact on the company’s behaviour. Three main OBissues have been identified within SheffLink.
Sue has been recommended ways toresolve issues identified. It has been recommended to Sue to follow thetheories of perception and decision making, motivation and leadership. The keyaspect of Sue’s leadership is motivation, thus organisational cannot beachieved if employees, especially warehousing worker, are not valued andencouraged.