Section 1.1:Describing aspects of development and explaining how they interrelateThe Children and Young People(Scotland) Act 2014 states that anyone under the age of 18 years oldare defined as a child.Development is the continuous progressand change in a person as they become more independent and adapt tolife as they grow.
There are five aspects of development which aresocial, physical, emotional, cognitive and language (SPECL). Asbabies get older they become more complex in their skills, thinking,communication and movement etc.SPECL is the aspects in whichpractitioners measure a child’s development:Social: The growth ofrelationships and socialisation with others and learning to behave ina social environment.
Physical: The physical growth ofa child in their weight, height and development of their fine andgross motor skillsEmotional: The awareness oftheir own emotions towards others and themselves and how they controlthose feelings.Cognitive: This is the way inwhich children organise their thinking and their ability to reasonand understand.Language: The ability anddevelopment of how children learn to communicate.Holistic development views a child orchildren as a whole person – physically, psychologically, socially,morally, culturally and religiously. This is the best way to look ata baby’s or a child’s development.SPECL development for the ages 5-6:Social Development: Build and keep friendships.
Learn certain behaviour depending on their environment. Enjoy being around people and socialising a lot more.Physical Development: Confident in walking, running and climbing etc. Enjoys being active. Have the ability to write and draw using their fine motor skills.Emotional Development: Express their feelings clearly.
They understand what criticism is. They can be reasoned with.Language Development: Be able to talk full complete sentences and hold a conversations. Understand instructions. Sentences are more complex and put together.Cognitive Development: They development a creative imagination. Learn to read, write and count low numbers. Have a better concept of time.
Section 1.2:Evaluating methods for assessing developmentAn important part of early yearspractice is the observing and assessments that take place. Staff arealways observing and assessing each child’s progress in developmentwhen interacting with children. Observing children allows early yearsworkers to assess a child’s strengths and weaknesses in each aspectof their development and learning. Informal observations may includemaking notes of something that’s caught the attention of a worker inthe nursery about a child and then share it with other staff members.
Informal Observations:”Informalobservations do not include ratings. Observers still give writtenfeedback on the videos or live observations, and may make note ofratings for their own benefit, however their ratings entries are notshared with anyone and their feedback goes directly to the teacher tosupport coaching.” (help.insightadvance.com,online, 2016)FormalObservations may be conducting experiments, surveys, case studies,longitudinal studies, time sampling and naturalistic.FormalObservation:”Formalobservations include an explicit evaluation component or ratingagainst the instructional framework.
” (help.insightadvance.com,online, 2016)Confidentialityis very important when observing a child. If any staff wishes tobegin observing a child the must have parental consent but also theconsent of the child. Parents have the right to access anyinformation about their child according to the Data Protection Act2003 and the Freedom of Information (Scotland) Act 2002.Lily’sdevelopmental progress could be observed using a naturalisticobservation and a longitudinal study. Both methods have positivesand negatives.
A naturalisticobservations seek to record exactly what is observed in the momentwith being selective.”Naturalisticobservation (i.e. unstructured observation) involves studying thespontaneous behaviour of participants in natural surroundings”(www.simplypsychology.org,online, 2015)An advantage ofthis method is that it not require any special preparation, only apen and paper. This method allows you to record anything that is saidor heard.
Unless you have development shorthand handwriting or are afast writer there is a chance you may miss out on writing down whatyou hear and see which is a big disadvantage.A longitudinalstudy consists of various observations of an individual child’sdevelopment and learning. Over a period of time (weeks, months, ayears or more) many techniques are used to record the child’sdevelopment and learning.
“Alongitudinal study is an observational research method in which datais gathered for the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time.Longitudinal research projects can extend over years or evendecades.” (whatis.
techtarget.com,online, 2013)Advantages ofthis method is that it is easy to pick up behaviour changes over timeand it produces factual information. However, disadvantages would bethat it is very time consuming and not many people stay focus due tohow long the process takes.
Section 1.3:Identifying influences and explaining their impact on development.There are many factors that can have apositive or negative impact on children’s development. These factorsinclude: cultural, economic, environmental, genetic, familial,political, social, technological, parenting, diet, illness andadditional support needs.The loss of a parent/guardian can havea huge impact on the development of a child or young person. Grieving for a loved one takes a long time and is exceptionallydifficult. Most children find grieving extremely hard anddon’t understand how to express the way their feeling and often shyaway or lash out to those around them.
“Grief is aprocess that takes time. Some children seem fine, at least initially,and may even behave better than they did before the death. Forexample, they may become quieter and calmer. This can be a sign thatthey’re hiding their feelings, putting on a brave face or simplytrying not to upset others.”(whatis.techtarget.
com, Online, 2016)Lily has recently gone through the lossof the father at such a young age and due to this her socialbehaviour isn’t at the average it should be for the age she is. Sheregularly sits on her own during school lunch times and break timesand much prefers to be left on her on rather than playing with groupsof children but will socialise more when her mother is around.Not socialising at such a young age canhold Lily back in many aspects of her development. It can cause herbehaviour to regress at a fast or slow pace depending on how hard itis for Lily to express how she is feeling. Lily can fall behind onher language and cognitive development in terms of her speech,reading and having the imagination expected from children from asimilar age group. This could affect Lily when buildingrelationships or maintaining friendships.
If Lily had some support andencouragement when interacting with other children or adults therewould be a high possibility for improvement in her development.Living in an environment surrounding bypositive factors such as schools, parks and local facilities can havean effective impact on Lily’s development.Lily’s attends a dancing class 3 days aweek which helps her in many aspects of her development. Physically,Lily will be growing, learning and building her strengths andweaknesses up whilst attending her dancing class. Being with groupsof children a similar age to Lily she will learn how to socialise andbond with the other children. This will have a positive impact onher social development and will allow her to grow more confident.
Section 1.4:Analysing positive influences that could contribute to potentialdevelopment.A positive influence on Lily’sdevelopment is she has a very positive environment.
For example herschool supports her in various ways. Frome Lily being withdrawn frommaking friends and socialising with other children her school can anurture group to help Lily through her difficult time and encourageher in expressing her feelings about how she is dealing with grief.”Nurture Groups have many modelsbut some of the core components that are present in a Nurture Groupinclude a focus on: understanding attachment and early development;relationships and adults modelling; social and emotional growth andlanguage and the six Nurture Principles.”(https://education.gov.
scot,online, 2017)Lily also lives near good amenitiessuch as: parks, cinemas and lots of other exciting things to do forher age group. Lily loves to be outdoors so living near a park willbe great for her development and learning. This will allow her toexplore and play in an outdoors environment which will allow Lily tofeel a lot happier.