Section AIn this section, I am going to talk about an occupationalanalysis of an occupation that I carried out at home – painting watercolour inmy spare time for pleasure and relaxation. An occupational analysis is similar toactivity analysis, which both are a structured, observational process to indicatethe requirement of successful performance (Curtin, Molineux & Supyk-Mellson,2010). However, the difference between them is that occupational analysis alsoconsiders the factors that prevent that individuals from performing occupationand takes the person’s emotional context and value into account. (Mackenzie& O’Toole, 2011). Therefore, it makes occupational analysis more individualcentred, as it is about the person instead of the activity itself.
According toCreek (2003), Occupations can be categorised into three types, which are self-care,productivity and leisure, and they are meaningful and purposeful to theindividuals. Self-care occupations are the activities people participate inorder to care themselves and maintain health; productivity occupations are doneto contribute to the community; leisure occupations are the activities thatbring pleasure and require no responsibility (Creek, 2006; Parham & Fazio,1997). Therefore, painting is my leisure occupation.Occupational analysis can be carried out in the structure of PEOframework. According to Nelson (1988), occupational performance, which is the ‘doing’of an occupation, is a transaction of person, environment and occupation andcan be affected by occupational form. Nelson (1988, p.633) defines occupationalforms as a set of circumstances, independent and external to a person, and canbe categorised into physical and sociocultural dimensions. In terms of physicaldimension, form refers the objects or materials used in an occupation, environmentalsurroundings (such as location), and temporal (when did it happen and for howlong) and human (movement, appearance or emotion) context (Nelson 1988, p.
633).Let me relate this concept back to the painting. When I paint, two to three brushes,different colour of watercolour paint, a paper, palette and especially waterare essential in completing a painting. Therefore, those objects are one of theforms of this occupation and can directly affect the occupational performance. Imagineif lack of any of the essentials, it would be more difficult to perform thistask and minimise the occupational performance. For the environmental, temporaland human context of the occupation, that would be me, in the absence ofothers, sitting in front of the desk painting in the morning. However, my movementchanged and I was tired after two hours of painting.
In terms of sociocultural aspect,researchers in the world have been done to suggest that painting not only ableto release stress, anxiety and negative emotions, but also helps to achievemedical outcomes and to improve well-being (Stuckey & Nobel, 2010), sopainting is considered as a norm for stress relief.Painting is meaningful and purposeful to me. Meaningfulness is an individual’sinterpretation of an occupation (Kielhofner, 1985), so there can be different meaningsto everyone in the same occupation and the meaning can change as the timepasses.
For me, the meaning of painting is the elicitation the memories ofproducing an art group project with my classmates a few years back. It is agood memory and every time I paint, this memory flashes back. Moreover, thefact that I am not a professional painter makes it more challenging for me tocompose how I exactly want it to be. However, when I achieve my expectation, Ifeel get the sense of accomplishment.
On the other hand, purposefulness is the goalorientation of an individual and varies among people (Breines, 1984). The purposesof painting for me are time-killing and stress relief. Whenever I am bored, orstressed about my study, I always make time to paint, so that I can relax for abit. This can also fit into a research done by Watters, Pearce, Backman (2013), which stated that a meaningful occupation can be influenced byprevious experience and skills and ability (Ikiugu et al 2015).
Section BAs it is mentioned in section A, occupations are meaningful and purposefulto the individuals. Hagedorn (2001) suggested that a purposeful occupationprovides longitudinal organisation of time and effort in one’s life, and alsohelps to develop skills to meet survival needs. This may rise a question – Is apurposeful occupation meaningful to an individual as well, and vice versa. Meaningfuloccupations contribute to personal well-being such as basic human needs fulfilment(Eakman, 2016), and foster self-worth, accomplishment and competency (Ikiugu etal 2015). Sometimes an occupation can be purposeful for an individual but he/she does not find it meaningful.
For example, working a job that does not fitinto your value or belief is not meaningful for you, however it is purposefulbecause you can earn money to survive from doing the job. As a result, youroccupational performance is minimised. Health and well-being are important in everybody’s life because theyenable people actively engage in activities. They are also interrelated withoccupation. Health is defined as the state which complete physical, mental andsocial well-being are present, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity(WHO, 2014). Occupational-wise, Stewart, Fischer, Hirji & Davis (2016)stated health can be achieved, experienced and restored by participating inmeaningful occupation in their culture.
Well-being is “the dynamic process thatgives people a sense of how their lives are going through the interactionbetween their circumstances, activities and psychological resources” (NEF,2013). However, by reviewing multiple of research studies, Dienar and Chan(2011) suggested that a positive well-being can only prevent poor health but isnot able to cure it. When occupation, health and well-being come together,well-being can be divided into two types: hedonic and eudaimonic. Hedonic wellbeing is pleasure-gaining (Ryan& Deci, 2001).
It is derived from engaging in activities that producespositive feeling and are subjective to individuals’ goals and experiences.Conversely, eudaimonic well-being does not necessarily make people gainpleasure, but they fulfil their value by engaging. McMahan & Estes (2011)defines eudaimonic wellbeing as a sense that occurs during activity that are inaccordance with people’s natures and values, which contribute to greater good,provides social connectedness and assist personal growth.