Rice of daily calories for the world population.


Rice
grains is one of the major staple food consumed by 70% of the world’s
population. It occupies one fifth of the total land covered under cereal crops
(Chakravarthi and Naravaneni, 2006). Rice, which is mainly, consumed as a whole
grain supplies 20% of daily calories for the world population. The adaptation
of rice cultivars to wide climatic conditions has led to the development of
thousands of rice varieties having diverse quality features in terms of
physical, cooking, eating and product development characteristics
(Bhattacharya, 2005).

Recently,
rice harvesting became a problem for farmers due to shortage of labor and
consequently, the increase of wages in the country. With the advent of industrialization,
there has been a migration of labor from the agriculture sector to the
industrial sector leaving limited numbers in the later sector to do the labor-intensive
farming activities like harvesting.

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Consequently,
one type of mechanical equipment that has grown rapidly in popularity is
Combine Harvesters. It is a technology that combines harvesting, threshing,
cleaning, and in some instances, bagging, in one operation. One series of
surveys in the TKR showed that use of Combine Harvesters increased rapidly
between 1996 and 2006 (from preliminary field study). Fully mechanized
harvesting systems have replaced the conventional systems using human labor with
sickles in harvesting operations in TKR. The main advantage of mechanizes
harvesting systems are reducing the production costs and improving labor efficiency.
However, operating the combine harvesting machines has great potential to cause
negative impacts to economic of farmers, especially social impacts.

A
classic combine harvester as a universal machine may be adjusted also to
harvesting of corn and soya (Przyby? and S?k, 2010). The next stage in
adjusting the machine for harvesting of a particular crop was the change of the
harvesting device and mounting relevant working elements of the combine such
as: elongation of a table and equipping it with vertical side scythes designed
for harvesting of rapeseed (?ak et al., 2007).

Combine
harvesters produced in recent years are advanced machines with regard to
mechatronics. Operation parameters of harvesters are controlled by means of
sensors and proceeded by an on-board computer which automatically selects
working settings, optimally to existing field conditions (Baruah, Panesar,
2005a, 2005b; Nik et al., 2009; Tana?, Zagajski, 2008). Due to the use of automatic
control system of working units, harvesters became more efficient. For example,
moisture sensors, which were used in harvesters cause decrease of damage and
grain losses in the harvesting process (Liu, Leonard, 1993; Miu, Kutzbachb,
2008a, 2008b; Tana? et al., 2008;Tana?, Zagajski, 2010; Molendowski et al.,
2012).

Some
farmers use manual labor to cut the crop and then use the combine harvester to
thresh and clean it stationary, Other follow direct combining but without
special rice grains header attachment, The crop is new and sensitive to
harvesting time and therefore poor adjustment of the combine may lead to bad
performance of the combine, therefore operators are essential to improve the
efficiency of rice grains direct harvesting (less labor, less losses, high
quality of grain and reasonable work rate). This will help the farmer for high
production and good crop quality, which means high profit.

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