Question: Explain the types of alienation thatMarx mention and what is his solution for this problem?Answer: In his manuscripts, Marx’s maindiscussion is about the alienation. There are four types of alienation thatMarx determined in his “Economic andPhilosophic of 1844”: alienation of worker from his product, from theproducing activity, from the species-being, and from others. In this paper, Iwill emphasize on these four types of alienation in Marx’s manuscripts, andthen, will discuss the solution offer of Marx. When Marx speaksof alienation, he basically talks about the alienation that occurs to theworkers working under a capitalist system.
According to Marx, the industrialproduction of capitalism causes the alienation of laboring workers. It is arelational understanding of capitalist mode of production, that Marx made inhis manuscripts. When Marx discusses the first types of alienation, thealienation of worker from his product, he focuses on “the relationship of theworker to production” (Marx, 1978, p. 73). Because workers not having the meansof production have not any control over the products of their labor, theybecome alien to their objects of labor. In other words, they become the objectsof their objects of labor. The second type ofalienation is the alienation that is manifested in the act of production- within the producingactivity itself.
What constitutes the alienation of labor, for Marx, isexternality of labor to the worker. In other words, labor does not belong toworker’s essential being, he does not develop freely his physical and mentalenergy. His labor is therefore not voluntary, but coerced; it is forced labor.
Marx states that the alienation of worker from the production activity means “therelation of the worker to his own activity as an alien activity not belongingto him” (Marx, 1978, pp. 74-75). The third type ofalienation, or the “third aspect of estranged labor” to deduce from the two alreadyconsidered, is the alienation of worker from species-being. With the term”species-being”, Marx means the characteristics of human-being different fromthe animals. What differentiate human from the animal is the labor, for Marx.When the labor become the alienated, the difference between men and animal isfading. The fourthand the last type of alienation is the alienation from others. Alienation fromthe others is a direct consequence of the other types of alienation.
Marxstates that “an immediate consequenceof the fact that man is estranged from the product of his labour, from islife-activity, from his species being is the estrangement of man fromman” (Marx, 1978, p. 77). If a man isconfronted by himself, he is confronted by the other man. What does Marxoffer for a solution to alienation is directly related with the source ofalienation. For Marx, what causes the alienation of worker is the capitalism,and fundamentally, private property. Marx thinks that the propertyless class,the workers, produces but do not have their own products.
On the other hand,the products have the workers. Therefore, the abolishment of the privateproperty, and the communism that provide people to realize themselves is asolution offer of Marx.