PSYCH r c h P r o


PSYCH 240  R e s e a r c h  P r o p o s a l   PSYCH 240   Lynnette Molitor 11/5/2017          1.     TheQuality of sleep and the Impact of Academic Performance in College Students  2.     In this research proposal, I chosean experimental method since in experimental designs causality can be proved. Thegoal of this study is to assessthe association between sleep deprivation and academic performance in collegeundergraduate students using registry-based academic grades (letter grades).

Dueto this research being conducted in an experimental method (effects of the independentvariable on the dependent variable are collected and analyzed for arelationship) a quantitative approach will beconducted since final grade for each student will be collected at the end ofthe semester and assessed. The quantitativedata that will be collected and analyzed are the student’s letter grades. 3.      Thisresearch study will examine whether sleep deprivation affects the academicachievement of undergraduate university students attending NSC and test whethersleep variables emerged as significant predictors of succeeding academicperformance. The goal of this study is to investigate if sleep deprivation willcause low academic performance in undergraduate students. If students are sleepdeprived then they will have a lower academic performance compared to studentswho are not sleep deprived.  4.

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     APACitation 1 and summary.  Aninadequate amount of sleep is detrimental factor that impacts mental processingand function that is involved in students taking academic performance. Thereforea correlation to the impact of undergraduate student’s performance on exams andconsequently the grades they received. The quality of sleep astudent’s experience in a 24 hour time frame directly correlates with physicalhealth, emotional state, and mental functioning/processing. Cognitiveperformance is at risk because of students failing to receive adequate sleep; cognitiveperformance decrease when less than 7 hours of sleep is obtained in a day foryoung adults. Students receiving inadequate sleep are generally less attentiveand cannot concentrate as well; thus resulting in a slowed and sluggish cognitiveprocessing that affects academic performance. Inadequate sleep also hindersnormal functions within brain structures which are vital to cognitiveprocesses.

One of the most impacted structures in the brain that issignificantly affected is the prefrontal cortex. The prefrontal cortex isresponsible for day to day functions that involve speech, recollection, logic, reasoning,and creativity. This study demonstrated how lack of sleep impacts cognitiveperformance in a negative way if a student is receiving inadequate amounts ofsleep. This information helped me understand what lack of sleep does to thebrain and structures in the brain that are vital for performing well on exams.  Howard,H.

(2016). Sleep and academic performance in later adolescence: Results from alarge population-based study. Journal of Sleep Research, 25(3),318-24. doi:10.1111/jsr.

12373APA Citation2 and summary.  Thereare a small amount of studies that have explored sleep habits in students whoare pursing health-care related degrees and careers. In this study, researchershad found sleep issues were common in students in medical school and inadequatesleep was correlated to the impact of academic performance. Regardless of astudent’s academic pursuit, sleep is a vital necessity for peopleto live a healthy lifestyle. Without healthy amounts of sleep students cannotfunction well and think coherently. Sleep aids with memory consolidation,learning, decision making, and critical thinking.

In this article, amongfinding sleep deprivation causes cognitive hindrance, they also found thatsleep deprivation significantly impact a student’s ability to perform successfullyin their medical classes. This is evident through the students’ GPA’s. Researchersin this study reported that students that who had slept about 9 hours or more withina 24 hour time frame had higher grade point averages compared to students thatonly sleep about 6 hours or possibly less within a 24-hour period. Studentreceiving less amounts of sleep also have a tendency to show signs of nervousness,anxiousness, more neurotic, prone to hallucinate, and displayed lesscreativity. Theinformation in this article helped me understand how sleep deprivation impactsthe student’s grades.   Kelly, W., Kelly, K., & Clanton,R.

(2001). The relationship between sleep length and grade-point average amongcollege students. College Student Journal,35(1),84.  APACitation 3 and summary.

 Thisresearch study included subjects that had some sort of sleep disorder and werebeing compared to subjects that had a depressive disorder. The subjects thathad a sleep disorders that secondary to other potential contributing factorssuch as mental illness, and other possible factors were exempted from thisstudy. “Sleep disturbance arises only after a critical level of depression isreached, and depression of varying severity may selectively affect differentsleep parameters” (Gupta 2009). My research proposal is assessing the affectsof sleep deprived students and their grades, depression was not incorporated.

Thisarticle suggests that perhaps lack of sleep could be due to depression. It wassomething that I had not considered as to why a student may be not sleeping andit is aspect that could be contributing to the low academic performance. Thisstudy did emphasize on the importance on the risk of cognitive performance if astudent is receiving inadequate amounts of sleep. This information had greatresearch about how sleep does not just affect a clinically diagnosed depressedindividual but also on a normal individual who is sleep deprived.     Gupta,R., Dahiya, S., & Bhatia, M.

S. (2009). Effect of depression on sleep:Qualitative or quantitative?             IndianJournal of Psychiatry, 51(2), 117–121. http://doi.

org/10.4103/0019-5545.49451 5.      Forthis research proposal, I chose an experimental method. This research will testwhether sleep deprivation causes low academic performance.  Sleep deprivation is also a variable that canbe easily manipulated in the experiment since there will be a control groupreceiving normal amounts of sleep and an experiment group that will bereceiving less than 6 hours of sleep.

The hypothesis of this study is ifstudents are sleep deprived then they will have a lower academic performance comparedto students who are not sleep deprived 6.     Thetarget population will be students whom are randomly selected that attendNevada State College. Most individuals believe in a patterned lifestyle, inthis case how humans should sleep at night and should work or attend school inthe daytime. This cycle of sleep and activity has been considered the only”normal” pattern for humans especially humans still developing. However, for astudent attending a university in pursuit of further education this is notalways the case.

Students must work hard at maintaining grades and set strictpriorities of their day to day activities. If activities that were meant to bedone during the day are not complete then the duration of completing theactivity seems into the time frame of when sleep should be obtained. Collegecampuses encompass a lot of social and academic experience sleep and rest areat time a very low priority for students. From demands of classes, not having aparent set a curfew, and stresses that prevent students from getting a fullnights rest contribute to sleep deprivation which in turn affect academicperformance.  7.

     Thesample will be randomly selected undergraduate, degree-seeking students thatattend Nevada State College. College level education is a very challengingexperience since students will sacrifice sleep and prioritize class work. Thisresearch will determine how much of an impact sleep has on learning, the resultcould potentially    8.      The independent variable is amountof sleep (hours per night) that the student is obtaining.

It is very hard to control what aparticipant does unless it happens in a lab.  Participants will get checked in with throughvisitation or a random phone call every so often to avoid this issue. This isthe independent variable since this is the variable being manipulated. Thecontrol group will receive 8 hours of sleep and will be monitored by a fit bit.The experiment group will receive less than 6 hours of sleep also monitored bya fit bit.

 9.      The dependent variable is academicperformance. Since the independent variable is the amount of sleep in hours astudent is receiving, academic performance is dependent upon the amount ofsleep being received. Academic performance will be influenced and impacted ifstudents do not receive adequate amounts of sleep. The goal of this study is tomeasure the student’s academic performance based on the letter grade received.

 10.  Students will also be monitored witha fit bit that shall be worn the entire duration of the study. This will allowa better data collection of the students sleep patterns. A Fitbit devices use technologicalsoftware called a 3-axis accelerometer that monitors and follows motions madduring daily activity. The device provides very detailed information consistingof patterns of movement that are either intense such as working out or lessintense such as sleeping. An individual sleeps versus when the body is active. TheFitbit also has another software installed called PurePulse® which monitors the individuals heartrate.

Based on the heart rate it another method to make it clear and easy todifferentiate when an individual is sleeping versus when they are awake andactive.  11.  Thedata collected of sleep monitored will be graphed by the Fitbit software for eachparticipant. The Fitbit to was to record sleep and run a correlational studywill be done to interpret the results thus determining the relationship ofsleep and academic performance. Correlational studies are used in psychology tosearch for a relationship between two variables. Three possible results of acorrelational study can be obtained.

.  A positivecorrelation of variables, a negative correlation of variables, and nocorrelation at all of variables. To measure the strength of the correlations, acorrelation coefficient will be used. The strength of the correlation willrange from –1.00 to +1.00. In this study, if the correlation coefficient becomesclose to +1.00, these results will indicate a very strong positive correlationbetween sleep (amount of sleep in hours) and academic performance (the lettergrade received).

If results steer more toward -1.00 then this is a strongnegative correlation. If the correlation coefficient is 0 then there was nocorrelation between the variables. 12.  There are certain limitationsthat should be taken in consideration. Researchers will be unable   to control the time and day the students areassigned assessment tasks or any written exams. Other contributing factors thatshould be considered is personality that is academically conscious, this factoris a strong predictor of academic achievement.

Socioeconomic status was nottaken into consideration neither was class attendance. This study did notconsider if students nap sometime during the day or take medication(homeopathic or over the counter supplements) use that may induce sleep whichwould significantly affect the results. 13.  Themanipulation of sleep could potentially be harmful to participants in this researchstudy; however, it is no more harmful than they would experience in their lifestyleas college students willing to sacrifice sleep to succeed academically. Whenthe sleep subjects are called for their check in it will not be the sameindividual always calling. The computers will run diagnostics on the Fitbit andwill be recorded in the computer systems data.   14.

  Student who received more sleeppassed their exams with higher exam grades compared to students who failed mostof their exams. Student receiving more amounts of sleep on weeknights andweekends will score higher than students that did not. When examining eachsleep group the percentage of student who did not score high or did not performwell were receiving less than 6 hours of sleep on weekdays and weeknights. Amongstudent receiving the full 8 hours of sleep showed an increased improvement inacademic achievement grades and GPA were higher in the group reporting a bettersleep quality. Factors that contribute to adequate sleep are the quality ofsleep, the amount, and the sleep regimen and are associated with better examscores. The results could potentially suggest that some sort of sleepeducation, seminar, or awareness program should be incorporated in colleges.

The goal of these awareness research programs is to encourage more sleep whichwill improve the students collegiate experience and enhance their health aswell as well being. 

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