Protein andOil Quality in Soybean INTRODUCTION: Soybean (Glycine max), alsoknown as Soja bean or Soja is anannual legume of family Fabaceae. Itschromosomes number in 2n=40. The soybean is economically the most importantbean in the world providing food for the millions of people and help in theproduction of many chemical products. Thesoybean is an erect branching plant and can reach upto 2m or more in height. Itis self-fertilized plant. Flowers are white or purplish shade. Seeds can beyellow, green, black, brown, or bicoloured.
Most of the commercial varietieshave brown and tan seeds with seeds ranging from 1-4 per pod. It is one of therichest source of protein and it is a staple crop of different parts of theworld. Seed contains 17% oil and 63% meal, 50% of which is protein. History &Origin: The origins of the soybean plant are obscure, but manybotanists believe it was first domesticated in central China as early as 7000 BC. Anancient crop, the soybean has been used in China, Japan, and Korea for thousands of years as a food and acomponent of medicines. Soybeans were introduced into the United States in1804 and became particularlyimportant in the South and Midwestin the mid-20th century.
Brazil and Argentina are also major producers. This new interest in soybeans as an oilseed crophas also been accompanied by widespread genetic engineering of the legume.Nearly 90% of all soy products inthe U.S.
marketplace now come from soybeans that have been geneticallyengineered (GE), making them one of the world’s top foods in terms of geneticmodification. Genetic engineering of soybeans began as early as 1998 with the introduction of soybeansinto the marketplace that had been modified for better resistance to thecommercial herbicide glufosinate ammonium. Since1998, at least eight other GE patents have been granted for use onsoybeans, most of them involving better resistance to pesticides andherbicides. If you are trying to avoid consumption of GE soy in your diet, yourbest bet is to purchase certified organic soybeans and soy products, sincegenetic engineering is not allowed under federal organic regulations. The transition of G. soja(Wild) to G. max (presentcultivar) is a result of three genetic bottlenecks, namely:· Domestication in Asia which lead to production ofmany Asian landraces.· Founding effects which lead to selection of fewlandraces, introduction in northern and southern U.
S.· Then selective breeding which lead to productionof the present cultivarsNutritionalValue: Thenutrition of soybean per 100g of soybean cooked and boiled is as follows: SUBSSTANCES AMOUNT Calories 173 Water 63 % Protein 16.6 g Carbohydrates 9.
9 g Sugar 3 g Fiber 6 g Fat 9 g Saturated 1.3 g Mono-unsaturated 1.98 g Poly-unsaturated 5.06 g Omega-3 0.6 g Omega-6 4.47 g SOYBEAN INDAILY LIFE:1.
Food for Humans:Nearlyall soybeans are processed for their oil. Soy processors (such as Cargill ) take the raw soybeans and separate the oil from the meal. The oil maybe refined for cooking and other edible uses, or sold for biodiesel productionor industrial uses. Soybean oil is used in cooking and fryingfoods. Margarine is a product made from soybean oil. Salad dressings andmayonnaises are made with soybean oil. Some foods are packed in soybean oil(tuna, sardines, etc.) Baked breads, crackers, cakes, cookies and piesusually have soybean oil in them.
2. Feed for Animals:Thehigh-protein fiber (that which remains after processing has removed theoil) is toasted and prepared into animal feed for poultry, pork, cattle, otherfarm animals and pets. The poultry and swine industries are majorconsumers of soybean meal. Over half of the soybeans processed for livestockfeed are fed to poultry, about one-quarter is fed to swine, and the rest isused for beef cattle, dairy cattle and pet food. Soy protein is increasinglyfound in fish food, both for home aquariums and for the fish grown foreating.
Most marine species were fed fish meal at one time, but thescarcity and increasing cost of fish meal has led producers to switch to highprotein soymeal for a variety of marine species. Around the world, soyprotein may be found in feed for most animals.3. OtherUses: · Biodieselfuel for diesel engines can be produced from soybean oil by a simple processcalled transesterification. This process removes the glycerin from theoil, leaving soy biodiesel. Soy biodiesel is cleaner burning thanpetroleum-based diesel oil.
Its use reduces particulate emissions, and itis non-toxic, renewable and environmentally friendly.· Bio-compositesare building materials made from recycled newspaper and soybeans. They replaceother products traditionally made from wood, such as furniture, flooring, andcountertops.· Particleboard,laminated plywood and finger-jointed lumber are made with soy-based woodadhesives.· Soyproducts are also found in many popular brands of home and commercial carpet,and in auto upholstery applications.
· Soyoil produces an environmentally friendly solvent that safely and rapidlyremoves oil from creeks, streams and shorelines without harming people, animalsand the environment. Soy is an ingredient in many industrial lubricants,solvents, cleaners and paints.· Candlesmade with soybean oil burn longer but with less smoke and soot.· Soy-Inkis superior to petroleum-based inks because soy ink is not toxic, renewable andenvironmentally friendly, and it cleans up easily.CONT.
· Soycrayons made by the Dixon Ticonderoga Company replace the petroleum used inregular crayons with soy oil making them non-toxic and safer for children.· Soy-basedlubricants are as good as petroleum-based lubricants, but can withstand higherheat. More importantly, they are non-toxic, renewable and environmentallyfriendly.· Soy-basedhydraulic fluid and rail flange lubricants are among the more recent productsdeveloped with check-off funds.· Soybased foams are currently being developed for use in coolers, refrigerators,automotive interiors and even footwear. Beginning in 2007, Ford Mustangsand other vehicles rolled off the production line with soy foam in theseats.
New uses in the automotive and equipment industry followed,including lubricants, body parts, interiors and seating. Soybean as Oil:Per100 g, soybean oil has 16 g of saturated fat, 23 g of monounsaturated fat, and58 g of polyunsaturated fat. The major unsaturated fatty acidsin soybean oil triglycerides are the polyunsaturated alpha-linolenicacid (C-18:3), 7-10%, and linoleic acid (C-18:2), 51%; and themonounsaturated oleic acid (C-18:1), 23%. It also containsthe saturated fatty acids stearic acid (C-18:0), 4%,and palmitic acid (C-16:0), 10%.Thehigh-proportion of oxidation-prone linolenic acid is undesirable for some uses,such as cooking oils. Three companies, Monsanto Company, DuPont/Bunge,and Asoyia in 2004 introduced low linolenic Roundup Readysoybeans.
Hydrogenation may be used to reduce the unsaturation in linolenicacid. The resulting oil is called hydrogenated soybean oil. If thehydrogenation is only partially complete, the oil may contain small amountsof trans fat. Type Saturated Fatty acid Monounsaturated Fatty acids Polyunsaturated Fatty acids Total mono Oleic acid (?-9) Totally poly Linolenic acid (?-3) Linoleic acid (?-6) Hydrogenated 15.6 22.8 22.6 57.7 7 51 Partially Hydrogenated 14.9 43.0 42.5 37.6 2.6 34.9