Prostate cancer is relatively critical and major diseaseamong men especially those above 40 years old which is death-causingdisease. In 2004, approximately 230110 men were diagnosed with prostate cancerand 29900 of them were died from this cancer in United States (Albertsen, 2005).
There are some common signs and symptoms for the patients who suffered fromprostate cancer such as frequent urination, blood in urine or semen, burningsensation during ejaculation and urination and etc. In fact, numerous factorscould be led to prostate cancer initiation. For instance, gene mutation,inflammation and increased the rate of cell proliferation(Ramalingam, Ramamurthy and Njar, 2017) will cause the occurrence of prostatecancer. This cancer also associatedwith dysregulation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. When all these pathways are notregulated or controlled, it leads to reduction in apoptotic rate, malignanttransformation, tumour progression and metastasis (Claudio, 2016) andestablishment of chemo and radio-resistance and this will drastically increasethe risk getting prostate cancer. Inflammationand abnormal cell proliferation can cause the epithelium of normal prostateinitiate the cascading, which induce the lesions to form. This directly gives aprimary prostate cancer or proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA) and at thesame time, it stimulates an intermediate stage known as prostaticintraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) (Ramalingam, Ramamurthy and Njar, 2017).
Otherthan that, there are a lot of scientific proofs indicating that the applicationof molecular and pathological analysis with prostate cancer of human and animalmodel depicted that infectious agents, estrogenic hormone, age, race, genetic andenvironmental factors can quicken the deterioration in the prostate epitheliumand provoke inflammation which might be attributed to make prostate cancer toreach critical level (Ramalingam, Ramamurthy and Njar, 2017). Lastly,the pathways are inter-connected and regulated to have a normal prostate due tothe effect of cross-talk mechanism. Androgen receptors (AR) regulation is oneof the major pathways must be under control to avoid prostate cancer. Theoverlapping between the pathways related to endocrinology and oncology is themain concern and would be further discussed and elucidated.
Those pathwaysinvolve with the kinase and the phosphorylation actions are the core wherebyrelated to the development and progression of prostate cancer. Besides,molecular changes also responsible and produce androgen-independence prostatecancer cells (Ramalingam, Ramamurthy and Njar, 2017) which promote itsprogression.