One exercise effectively. The strategic decision of officials


One of the most critical and important roles of the managers in any type of organizations is the decision-making. The process of strategic decision consider a difficult and complex process between the numerous decisions of actors and, therefore, must be try to understood in full before the start of the exercise effectively. The strategic decision of officials is a complex and ambiguity process. Therefore, many studies have been carried out aimed at building models that help the officials and executives to take the best decisions. We do not know just a very few about the strategic decision and factors affecting in it, in the last century since 1990s,  the scientists started in conducting studies on strategic decision. Based on this study to the previous theoretical and empirical studies, the results showed that research in the study of demographic, and organizational factors, and its impact on strategic decision either limited  results, particularly variables (gender, education, the size of the organization and others). Therefore the researcher turn to conduct the study on the field of the specialized public hospitals with the addition of some demographic and organizational variables did not discuss before, the  managers’ learning place, the managers’ growth place, if the managers worked in private sector, then the number of clients seeking to get service from the hospital, that a desire to reach results which enhance the form of the relationship between the variables of the study,  the study of strategic decision-making and the factors that affect it is still on the degree of significance and in an urgent need to conduct pilot studies and research before reaching any final conclusion can be reachedIntroduction The decision making process considerable an one of the most complex mechanisms of human thinking, that because intervene of it with various factors and courses of action , with various results.  (Narayan & Corcoran?Perry, 1997) argued decision making as the intervene among an issues that requires to be fixed and an individual who desired to solve it within a particular environment. (Halpern, 1997) said to arrive at a decision, there are several steps that must be followed in order :determine the goals to be achieved, create alternatives that lead to accomplishing the proposed objectives, assess alternatives and, lastly, chose the best alternative, the one that involves an efficient result.(Maria, Maria, & Maria, 2007) According to (Nooraie, 2012) (Pearce II & Robinson, 1989) argued, a complex and rapid changing business environment, and the shortage in  scarce resources, fast changes in information technology, the new world economic system, and many others. These changes have progressed on the one hand a very dynamic world of increased population, inflation, social consumption. Managers are made a many of daily decisions, and they have to make decisions under all conditions. That no decision is a decision in itself. That unusual problems in any management,  consequent on their very fast decisions, forcing the executives who are suffering from the tension of their presence in the unexpected environment of making many decisions rapid rates (Toffler & Alvin, 1981). This study explores demographic and organizational factors affect strategic decision-making. The select to concentrate on strategic decisions is due to its nature and importance. The nature of strategic decisions are long term, complex, highly unstructured, and integrally risky and have great influence on the hospital future.  A many of organizational resources, and hospital’s environment  consideration that typically requires to strategic decisions making. At (1978) Hofer   said, the senior management of organization usually plays a central role, in  strategic decision making. At (1982) Christensen et al argued, the administration, organizational direction, and structure are influenced by strategic decisions. (Colignon & Cray, 1980) said, strategic decision influences the organization also in society, (Amason, 1996) mentioned, made question, why  the strategic decision takes all this interest. At (1992) Eisenhardt & Zbarack “Mature paradigms and incomplete assumptions. (Nooraie, 2012)  (Papadakis, et al 1998) said, the research of strategy process has not departed significantly from a point of being based on. Literature Review (Strategic Decision-making) (Ansoff, 1984) mentioned, in the late 1950’s. The first step in the assessment of strategic management was taken, when organization enhanced a systematic approach to deciding where and how the organization will do its future work . (Digman, 1986) said a strategy is a style in the organization’s significant  decisions and actions, and involves of a few main areas or things by which the organization is distinguished from others .To Mintzberg summaries the strategy in ( five Ps) it is a plan, a ploy, a pattern, a position, and a perspective,  while to Drucker, said  strategy is a purposeful action. In (1985) Pearce II & Robinson defined strategic management as the set of decisions and actions resulting in the articulation and implementation of strategies intended to attain the objectives of an organization. (Nooraie, 2012) As per to (Child, 1972) Strategic decisions consider the essential variable into strategic management. There are some managers’ personal characteristics specially in the privet sector have influence the strategic decision making, such as psychological factors, education, organizational characteristics, and ownership type. (Mintzberg, 1994) argue, some strategies put organizations at the facade, while others put them at the last. In (2005) Siggelkow & Rivkin said the actors  are threatened with many diverse variable (internal and external), that are and at the same time, each of one enter the formulation of decision-making. According to (Ismail, 2016), Ashill and Jobber (2013) discovered that personality and experience variables (locus of control and tolerance for ambiguity) had an important role in the kind of perceived environment nonconference experienced by decision makers.             Hofer
& Schendel  mentioned at(1978) , strategic decisions in
which top managers usually has
a fundamental role, are ill structured, non – timetable, and important  to the organizations. (Quinn,
1980; March, 1981; Das, 1986; Neustadt & May, 1986) defined the strategic
decision-making as gradual and related, shaped by a set of contextual impacts creating
from past occasions, present circumstances and perceptions of the future. (Mintzberg
et al., 1976) argued, one of the central
characteristic of strategic decisions is lack of structure. (Mason & Mitroff, 1981)this is because the complexity of the strategic issues. (Gamble and Thompson , 2009) mentioned the organization’s
strategy composed of competitive changes also develop management’  approaches
that attract and please customers, grow the business, conduct operations, and
attain performance objectives. (Nooraie, 2012) Rodriguez & Hickson in study at
(1995) said decisions in profit organizations, the  organizations have smoothness processes of decision-making. The
experiences of nonprofit
organizations are more turbulence, interruptions,
recycles, and conflict (e.g., Perry &
Rainey 1988).
Some researchers said these differences attribute to the roles that private and public organizations play in our social environment. In private
organizations, the shareholders pay services or products through markets to create wealth. While, some researchers like Baldwin (1987) summarized no significant variances
between private and public sector organizations
(Samantaray, 2015). Strategic Decision Making in Public
Hospitals Glassman, Zell, & Duron concluded at (2005) that conditions in
external environments are effect in  all nonprofit
hospitals, and successful strategic decision making needs that these circumstances be
suitably considered The public hospital’s strategy
are more relevant with external environment circumstances, which they are
considerable extremely complicated places, its physical limits that can affect
its performance. To understand the  public
hospitals’ external
environment, the
senior managers should be subdivide the
environment into components. As much as any industrial organizations, public
hospitals, may be are directly and powerfully influenced by their exterior environments, and particularly so by the public policy aspects of these environments. The importance of public policies to
hospitals, connected with the turbulent and frequently unexpected framework in
which public policies are based
makes significant challenges in public hospitals specially in  strategic decision making  (Longest, 2010). The  hospitals have three decisions
making levels  (strategic level, administrative level, and operational
level), also there are three organizational planning levels (strategic, long term, and operational planning) are connected with each other closely. Moreover, two
main types of decisions exists; programmable
decisions, which includes routine managerial issues and could easily, and
represented a standard operating procedures. Another type is nonprogrammable
decisions, that includes conditions  happened rarely in the politics of
organization  and procedures. To ensure success this decision’ kind requires a great deal
of the decision maker’s attention and
often involves an
official, multi-leveled decision-making methodology. Toygar and Akbulut  conducted their study on senior managers of
public hospitals in Ankara and achieved  these results;  there is  a positive effect of administrative experience on decision-making skills and problem-solving; male
senior managers have the best decision making skills and ability of problem
solving than female senior managers; administrators with a higher
education were better at decision making  and problem solving than those with a low education (Toygar &
Akbulut, 2013).
         The
incorporating of hospitals’ public policy environments into process of
strategic decision making, that considerable a success  for managers of
public hospital, managers must know all
information on what these environments contains. This can help
them in systematically imagining and evaluating the
public policy-driven opportunities and threats confronting
their organizations. On
the other hand, utilize of this
information could develop strategic performance due to, better public
policy-pertinent information facilitates more suitable strategic responses.
These four steps are
utilized directly to analyzing a public hospital’s public policy environment, are:
1.      Scanning the public hospital’s public policy environment to know or determine strategically significant information.
2.      Monitoring the strategically pertinent public policy information
that which have been determined.
3.      Assessing the probable implications of the
information that which have been monitored for the hospital.
4.       Diffusing gained consequences of the environmental analysis between strategists in the hospital management who share liability for formulating, implementing and controlling stages of its strategy
(Longest Jr, 2012). 

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