Occupational Health and Safety: (1)Is a science that is concerned withmaintaining the safety and health of the human being by providing safe workingenvironments free from the causes of accidents, injuries or occupationaldiseases, or in other words is a set of procedures and rules and systems in alegislative framework aimed at protecting the person from the risk of injuryand preservation of property Of the risk of damage and loss, which is a veryimportant science aimed at protecting workers in factories and workplaces frompotential accidents that may cause injury to the worker or death and also anydamage or damage to the property in the establishment.Occupational Health and Safety legislation : Thefirst Occupational Health and Safety legislation was issued in 1946 and then the list of factoriesin 1949. The list of workshops and factories was issued in 1950. Thus, the lawwas amended with the development of industry. The law of wages committees andconditions of service was promulgated in 1976, The Occupational Health Regulationsof 1981 and the Compensation for Work Injuries Law 1981 were added to the LaborLaw of 1997.They are sources oflegislation:· National laws and legislation .· International and regional conventions and recommendations. OccupationalHealth and Safety in Employment Act 1997 : (2)• This law Abolished the previous laws, namely: the ManpowerAct of 1974 and the Industrial Relations Act of 1976 and the law ofindustrial safety for the year 1976, the Labour Relations Act individual for the year in 1981.
despite the cancellation, all regulations andorders and rules issued under the laws mentioned remain in effect. • The Labor Law included regulations and supplementaryinstructions as follows: • In the work environment in factories: A. Forhygiene :- ü Does notallow the accumulation of waste in the work rooms and stairs and corridors.ü Rooms to be designed not to allow infiltrationof water and liquids, and are constantly cleaned. B. Forcrowding:- ü Do notallow overcrowding in any room to work.
ü ForEmployees occupying a vacuum which therest of the vacuum must be less than four hundred cubic feet for each person,and height not more than fourteen feet. ü signwritten with the number of people allowed to work inside the workroom C. Forlighting:- Must be appropriate with sufficient capacityD. For noise and vibrations: Should be reduced in the workplace so that they are in thepermissible limits .E. For the temperature and ventilation:That the temperature isappropriate to the nature of work in each room.
Take actions necessary to avoidhaving bad air, or any decrease in the fresh air or slow renewal. F. Drinking water:- Provisionof safe and sufficient drinking water toemployees G. Where toeat:-Factories must be allocated places to eat and be equippedwith tables, chairs, pots cleanand good with all means of comfort, and be far from the operations area.There shall be no meals, beverages and smoking in rooms and stores of rawmaterials harmful to the health worker H. MedicalExamination:-Each manufacturer should provide means of medical examinationfor workers.
Each unit in the work place must beequipped with first aid kit.I. Laundry and bathroom toilets and changing: -Establishment of washbasins, baths, toilets and rooms foremployees to change clothes.J. Organization of working time :Normal working hours are forty eight hours per week, or eighthours a day including half an hour for rest ( PAID ).
Reduction of daily working hours by one hour per day for theworkers during the fasting month of Ramadan.Vision : (1)· Strengthen state leadership in occupational safety and health .The Mission : The development of human resources knowledgeand provide innovative research and professional knowledge services in thefield of occupational safety and health to develop skills and contribute to thestability and promotion of the work environment and environment .Strategic Objective : Developing and developing labor relationsaccording to international standards.
Objectives :1. Tocontribute actively to economic and social development through the provision ofservices that contribute to the promotion and stability of the workingenvironment.2.
Protect the main production components fromthe risks and events of work. Occupational safety and health tasks :· Investigation of work injuries .· Inspection of industrial establishments (periodic, guidance,implementation of laws and regulations). · Check the engineering drawings of the buildings of theindustrial establishments and workshops and certify them after ensuring theavailability of industrial safety elements.· Conducting an investigation into industrial accidents anddetermining the liability of employers and removing their causes.· To ensure that the human element is protected from thehazards of the industrial professions by carrying out preventive inspection.
· Issuing registration certificates for various industrialestablishments .· Supervising the inspection of gazelles and pressure vesselsby specialized engineers.· To promote the levelof occupational safety and health and to disseminate its culture as widely aspossible within the community. Definition of work injury : Is the injury caused to the worker duringofficial working hours or the cause of work or injury to a professionaldisease.
This list of occupational diseases the following: (2)1. Poisoning and its complications. 2. Mercury poisoning and its complications.
3. Arsenic poisoning and its complications.4. Phosphorus poisoning and its complications.5. Poisoning, gasoline or similar products or compounds.6.
Manganese poisoning and its complications. 7. Sulphur poisoning and its complications.8. Chrome ulcers and its complications.9. Affected by nicke and its complications.10.
Poisoningby petroleum or its derivatives or its gases and its complications.11. Diseaseand pathological symptoms that arise from radium, radioactive substances orX-rays.12. Thefirst skin cancer and inflammation and ulceration of the skin and eye chronic.13.
Pulmonarydust diseases that arise from :ü Asbestosdust.ü Silicadust.ü Cottondust.ü Dustsugar cane.14. Anthracis.
Safety Steps: (1)· The need to use personal protective equipment and safetyduring work and not underestimate its importance .· The need to provide a first aid box in the workplace to dealwith injuries quickly .· Keeping chemical and flammable materials away from workers’gathering places as a real threat to factories, facilities and workers.· To activate the concept of occupational safety within thefactories and facilities by creating a supervisor for occupational safety tofollow the safety requirements that will limit many accidents.
· Focusing on increasing the readiness of workers in factoriesand establishments by carrying out exercises that will provide them withsufficient expertise in how to evacuate and deal with accidents as they occur.· To maintain the coordination between the owners of thefactories or those responsible for them with the Civil Defense Authority foroccupational safety and health and the concerned authorities in this regard byholding courses for the supervisors of the work and the workers that aim toprovide a safe working environment for all.· Work on issuing brochures, posters and posters periodicallyand keep abreast of the developments in the work environment in the field ofpublic safety, as these publications are necessary and important to educateemployees to raise awareness and thus reduce the incidence of work. General goals that occupationalsafety and health seek to achieve : · Protect the human element from injuries caused by the hazardsof the work environment by preventing their exposure to accidents, injuries andoccupational diseases .
· Maintaining the components of the physical component of theinstallations and the equipment and equipment they contain from damage and lossas a result of accidents.· Providing and implementing all occupational safety and healthrequirements that ensure the provision of a security environment that ensuresthe prevention of risks to the human and material elements.· Occupational Safety and Health aims to establish safety andsecurity in the hearts of employees while doing their work and to reduce theanxiety and panic attacks they face as they live by the necessities of lifewith the tools and materials and materials that lie between them in danger oflife and under unsafe conditions. Their lives between time and time for seriousnotification and so be safety. In order to achieve the above objectives mustbe available the following elements:· Proper and purposeful technical planning for the foundationsof prevention in establishments.· Legislation stemming from the need to implement thistechnical planning.The implementation is based on sound operational principlesat the time of construction, with the provision of specialized technicalequipment to ensure the continuous