Niksic et al. (2015) carried out a study to investigate therelationships between cancer symptoms awareness and demographic variables. Thisstudy also tends to find out the association between the barriers to healthscreening and demographics variables. 49270 data was obtained from18 cross-sectional surveys conducted by National Awareness and Early DiagnosisInitiative (NAEDI) in 2009 until 2011. The areas involved in the survey includedurban andrural areas, across England.
Descriptive analysis were done to analyze thedemographic characteristics of the participants and Kruskal-wallis test wereperformed to identify whether there is a significant difference between cancerawareness and barriers to health screening with the demographic variables. The relationship between the categoricalvariables was identified by using logistic regression. The results found thereis a significant difference between cancer awareness and barriers to healthscreening among demographic variables. Age, marital status, gender, educationallevel, and employment status were significantly associated with the cancersymptoms awareness and barriers tohealth screening. Finding shows that participants who are women, married, agebetween 55-74 years old, high educational level and employed has high score ofcancer awareness while participants who are youngest, women, single, higheducated and employed have reported most barrier to health screening.
Keeney et al. (2011) performed a study in Northern Ireland, UnitedKingdom to assess the level of knowledge of publics aged between 35 and 54years old towards the warning signs of cancer that have been obtained fromNational Cancer Institute. The sample have been selected randomly from EditedElectoral Register for Northern Ireland . The electoral register containsseveral information regarding to voters background.
5000 of questionnaire wereposted to public through mail and only 1067 returned. Descriptive analysis wasdone to analyze the demographics variables and some other methods like Mann-Whitney,Kruskal Wallies, and logistic regression have been used to define the association between demographic variablesand the level of knowledge of warning signs of cancer. Finding shows thatrespondent with high level of education, high income, high socio-economicstatus, a female and older has high knowledge towards the warning signs ofcancer.