Niksic to investigate the relationships between cancer symptoms

Niksic et al. (2015) carried out a study to investigate the
relationships between cancer symptoms awareness and demographic variables. This
study also tends to find out the association between the barriers to health
screening and demographics variables. 49270 data was obtained from
18 cross-sectional surveys conducted by National Awareness and Early Diagnosis
Initiative (NAEDI) in 2009 until 2011. The areas involved in the survey included
urban and
rural areas, across England. Descriptive analysis were done to analyze the
demographic characteristics of the participants and Kruskal-wallis test were
performed to identify whether there is a significant difference between cancer
awareness and barriers to health screening 
with the demographic variables. The relationship between the categorical
variables was identified by using logistic regression. The results found there
is a significant difference between cancer awareness and barriers to health
screening among demographic variables. Age, marital status, gender, educational
level, and employment status were significantly associated with the cancer
symptoms awareness  and barriers to
health screening. Finding shows that participants who are women, married, age
between 55-74 years old, high educational level and employed has high score of
cancer awareness while participants who are youngest, women, single, high
educated and employed have reported most barrier to health screening.


Keeney et al. (2011) performed a study in Northern Ireland, United
Kingdom to assess the level of knowledge of publics aged between 35 and 54
years old towards the warning signs of cancer that have been obtained from
National Cancer Institute. The sample have been selected randomly from Edited
Electoral Register for Northern Ireland . The electoral register contains
several information regarding to voters background. 5000 of questionnaire were
posted to public through mail and only 1067 returned. Descriptive analysis was
done to analyze the demographics variables and some other methods like Mann-Whitney,
Kruskal Wallies, and logistic regression 
have been used to define the association between demographic variables
and the level of knowledge of warning signs of cancer. Finding shows that
respondent with high level of education, high income, high socio-economic
status, a female and older has high knowledge towards the warning signs of

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