Nigeria is acountry located in West Africa with a coast on the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean. It is the most populous countryin Africa and seventh most populous country in the world.
Growth anddevelopment in Nigerian urban areas have been generally unplanned and chaotic. Thefailure of the government to providebasic infrastructure, to plan for future growth and expansion, to implementdevelopment plans strictly, and to enforce development control has resulted ingross degradation of the environment (Adeponle, 2013). There has been a steady influx of rural migrants to the urban areas, thusleading to an increase in urban population. An example is Lagos, the formerfederal capital since 1914, expanded beyond its natural boundaries, suffered severaldrawbacks that made its continued existence as Nigeria’s capital untenable dueto the population pressure as well as the associated menaces that accompany it.Lagos was bemoaned of terrible traffic congestion, poor drainage, chronic congestion,unbearable ethnic influence and dominion over land matters (Daramola & Aina, 2005). Hence, a law was passed by the Federal Government of Nigeria toestablish the Federal Capital Territory on 3 February 1976, and anagency Federal Capital Development Authority (FCDA), was established to planand develop the city and the entire Federal Capital Territory (FCT).
As such,FCDA awarded the Abuja Master Plan in 1976, completed and submitted on 15February 1979 byan International Consortium of Planners, Urban Designers, and Architects based in Virginia, USA –International Planning Associates (IPA). Actual development started in theearly 1980’s, the relocation of the seat of the Federal Government from Lagosto Abuja was effected in 1991. With the relocation of the seat, developmentactivities within the Federal Capital City increased, it became a huge planninglaboratory where Planners, Architects, Engineers and almost all the land-related professionals got involved in thedevelopment of a modern city (Jibril, 2015).
The area covers a total land mass ofabout 8,000 square kilometers (Fig 1) out of which the city itself occupies about250sq km (Abuja master plan, 1979).