is a human behavior that accepts people to handle several tasks concurrently or
with multiple-task switches (Lee & Taatgen, 2002).
Multitasking is a human context, is the practice of doing several things
continuously (Margaret Rouse, 2013), such as editing a document or responding
to the email while attending a teleconference. Due to some research women are
expert in multitasking, for example According to (Buser and Peter (2012)) women
are far better at multitasking, such as feeding the child while preparing the
food. Communicating with another person while driving a car, planning and
executing responses to evade accident, or having a conversation through mobile
while crossing the street are a few examples of daily activities that require
divided attention between two or more concurrent task (Bier, Boysson, and
In this, there is a variant
address that has been found in the human and also that is relevant to the workplace
i.e., people who switch between the multiple tasks. There is another relevant
example for multitask is when people doing multiple tasks in the computer,
switching back and forth between the windows or mobiles or tabs. Not only the
young people can process the multitask work the old people can also do the
multitask things. The greatest progression of modern technologies is from
radios, telephones, television, desktop machines and especially the cell phones
that allow the people to make several things concurrently.
Time is a key dimension
of multitasking. The important thing for each an every household is taking care
of their children along with that they have multitasked work to do at home like
cleaning, cooking and doing laundry as well. The
household production is more or less like multitasking work, for example
watching a movie, listening to music and having food (altogether will be
happened at the same time). Therefore, our multitask focus on two
commodities: a childhood commodity and a household commodity. The childhood
commodity of sole-tasked time and productivity factor for sole-tasked time are
spent for the production of the child, multitasked time and productivity factor
for multitasked time are spent for the production of both. The household
commodity of sole-tasked time and productivity factor, for sole-tasked time are
spent for the production of the household but for the multitasking factor both
can be used simultaneously. Therefore, the childhood commodity and household
commodity are similar in production. It is not allowing to spend time with that
task for the direct utility.
That is, time spent in childcare and in other
household task is allowed to affect the utility only through the amounts of
child and household commodities it produces. The people are happy that
multitasking is the right way to do multiple tasks at the same time and they
will show the result according to the quality of which they produce. (Telford(1931))
In some experiment they demonstrated to check the human behavior by given
dual-task they found that humans are very slow in doing their task. They took
more time to complete the first task due to the distraction of mind until that
second task has to wait for. (Broadhent (1958), Craik (1948), Keele (1973), Pashler
(1994) and Welford (1952)).
BASED MODALITY IN MULTITASKING:
Actually, in the time-based modality,
the humans can’t do the multiple tasks at the same time due to that they have
loss of memory. In fact, they will forget the second process while they are
doing the first one (e.g., Treisman, 1969; Yuille & Ternes, 1975;
Wickelgren, 1965). To find this they made many types of research in that they have
demonstrated to find the information of the human behavior while doing the task
through the short and long-term goals(e.g., Bird and Williams, 2002; Crowder,
1986; Frankish, 1985, 1995; Glenbergand Swanson, 1986). Through this research,
they have accepted a lot of human behaviors while proceeding, the performance. The
time- based modalities in multitasking are like the people can also do the
multiple tasks at the same time within the time limit such as emailing to the
authorizer while listening to the music, whereas typing the essay which is
given by the tutor within the given time limit.
Not only that, there are more examples of
multitasking is like the simple projects also connect the human-like (employee,
staff and the customer). The customer gives the project and there will be a
link between the employees and staffs to complete the project then, at last,
they will submit the project to the same customer. From one side multitasking
creates the bad impression on the human behaviour For eg., We will be like
chatting on the phone via WhatsApp or Facebook to our friends or family
members, due to that they won’t watch the road and walk, in sometimes it may
cause some accidents (Kahneman (1973) and Hatfield & Murphy (2007)). In the
above example, the multitasking performance is like human need to watch the
roads and signals, they need to chat on the mobile as well. It is a time based
multitask work but when compared to the brain it takes some time to think about
the next step to do work simultaneously (Weaver & Arrington, 2013). The
effects of multitasking not only in task performance we can see multitasking in
academic level as well. The multitasking means it will give more pressure for
the humans to do several things due to that there will be a lot of diversion of
their mind(Jeong & Hwang, (2012). For eg., staff taking class whereas,
students are talking to their friends and taking notes. In this case, the
students should take notes while communicating with their friends, this can
leads to the lots of distraction for the students while taking the notes with
lots of mistakes.
is the challenge for the brain. It needs to think which task to perform first
and that leads to the loss of time. The benefits of multitasking remain
controversial, the humans should do one thing while doing multiple tasks i.e.,
they should divide their task according to their work to complete as soon as
possible for a perfect time sharing. “Every human have the same capacity to
perform a task, while doing several tasks they will have lots of distraction on
their work even though humans have the ability to do their work” (Salvucci
& Taatgen, 2008, p.2).
is a theory called Threaded Cognition Theory. According to that theory, it allows
the parallel processing the task is called as threads(Borst, Taatgen & Van
Rijn, 2010). These threads can run simultaneously and also it can run
independently as well. The thread can also act like multitasking whereas, in
sometimes the second thread has to wait for the first thread to complete the
process (Salvucci & Taatgen, 2008).
one can use the procedural process at a time so, multiple threads are managing
on a single procedural processor. The resources are not available to use the
threads concurrently. For example, if there is only one person selling the
tickets in the ticket counter; the people can collect the ticket one by one
whereas, the other people should wait in the line to get the tickets(the second
person can collect the ticket after the first person receive the ticket).
Likewise, thread B has to wait until thread A has done with this particular
resource. Finally, there are positive and negative as well for human beings in
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