MULTITASKING3.1DEFINITION: Multitaskingis a human behavior that accepts people to handle several tasks concurrently orwith multiple-task switches (Lee & Taatgen, 2002).Multitasking is a human context, is the practice of doing several thingscontinuously (Margaret Rouse, 2013), such as editing a document or respondingto the email while attending a teleconference. Due to some research women areexpert in multitasking, for example According to (Buser and Peter (2012)) womenare far better at multitasking, such as feeding the child while preparing thefood. Communicating with another person while driving a car, planning andexecuting responses to evade accident, or having a conversation through mobilewhile crossing the street are a few examples of daily activities that requiredivided attention between two or more concurrent task (Bier, Boysson, andBelleville, 2014). In this, there is a variantaddress that has been found in the human and also that is relevant to the workplacei.
e., people who switch between the multiple tasks. There is another relevantexample for multitask is when people doing multiple tasks in the computer,switching back and forth between the windows or mobiles or tabs. Not only theyoung people can process the multitask work the old people can also do themultitask things. The greatest progression of modern technologies is fromradios, telephones, television, desktop machines and especially the cell phonesthat allow the people to make several things concurrently.3.2TIMEBASED MULTITASKING: Time is a key dimensionof multitasking. The important thing for each an every household is taking careof their children along with that they have multitasked work to do at home likecleaning, cooking and doing laundry as well.
Thehousehold production is more or less like multitasking work, for examplewatching a movie, listening to music and having food (altogether will behappened at the same time). Therefore, our multitask focus on twocommodities: a childhood commodity and a household commodity. The childhoodcommodity of sole-tasked time and productivity factor for sole-tasked time arespent for the production of the child, multitasked time and productivity factorfor multitasked time are spent for the production of both.
The householdcommodity of sole-tasked time and productivity factor, for sole-tasked time arespent for the production of the household but for the multitasking factor bothcan be used simultaneously. Therefore, the childhood commodity and householdcommodity are similar in production. It is not allowing to spend time with thattask for the direct utility.
That is, time spent in childcare and in otherhousehold task is allowed to affect the utility only through the amounts ofchild and household commodities it produces. The people are happy thatmultitasking is the right way to do multiple tasks at the same time and theywill show the result according to the quality of which they produce. (Telford(1931))In some experiment they demonstrated to check the human behavior by givendual-task they found that humans are very slow in doing their task.
They tookmore time to complete the first task due to the distraction of mind until thatsecond task has to wait for. (Broadhent (1958), Craik (1948), Keele (1973), Pashler(1994) and Welford (1952)). 3.3TIMEBASED MODALITY IN MULTITASKING: Actually, in the time-based modality,the humans can’t do the multiple tasks at the same time due to that they haveloss of memory.
In fact, they will forget the second process while they aredoing the first one (e.g., Treisman, 1969; Yuille & Ternes, 1975;Wickelgren, 1965). To find this they made many types of research in that they havedemonstrated to find the information of the human behavior while doing the taskthrough the short and long-term goals(e.g., Bird and Williams, 2002; Crowder,1986; Frankish, 1985, 1995; Glenbergand Swanson, 1986). Through this research,they have accepted a lot of human behaviors while proceeding, the performance.
Thetime- based modalities in multitasking are like the people can also do themultiple tasks at the same time within the time limit such as emailing to theauthorizer while listening to the music, whereas typing the essay which isgiven by the tutor within the given time limit. Not only that, there are more examples ofmultitasking is like the simple projects also connect the human-like (employee,staff and the customer). The customer gives the project and there will be alink between the employees and staffs to complete the project then, at last,they will submit the project to the same customer.
From one side multitaskingcreates the bad impression on the human behaviour For eg., We will be likechatting on the phone via WhatsApp or Facebook to our friends or familymembers, due to that they won’t watch the road and walk, in sometimes it maycause some accidents (Kahneman (1973) and Hatfield & Murphy (2007)). In theabove example, the multitasking performance is like human need to watch theroads and signals, they need to chat on the mobile as well. It is a time basedmultitask work but when compared to the brain it takes some time to think aboutthe next step to do work simultaneously (Weaver & Arrington, 2013).
Theeffects of multitasking not only in task performance we can see multitasking inacademic level as well. The multitasking means it will give more pressure forthe humans to do several things due to that there will be a lot of diversion oftheir mind(Jeong & Hwang, (2012). For eg., staff taking class whereas,students are talking to their friends and taking notes. In this case, thestudents should take notes while communicating with their friends, this canleads to the lots of distraction for the students while taking the notes withlots of mistakes.
Multitaskingis the challenge for the brain. It needs to think which task to perform firstand that leads to the loss of time. The benefits of multitasking remaincontroversial, the humans should do one thing while doing multiple tasks i.e.
,they should divide their task according to their work to complete as soon aspossible for a perfect time sharing. “Every human have the same capacity toperform a task, while doing several tasks they will have lots of distraction ontheir work even though humans have the ability to do their work” (Salvucci& Taatgen, 2008, p.2).Thereis a theory called Threaded Cognition Theory. According to that theory, it allowsthe parallel processing the task is called as threads(Borst, Taatgen & VanRijn, 2010).
These threads can run simultaneously and also it can runindependently as well. The thread can also act like multitasking whereas, insometimes the second thread has to wait for the first thread to complete theprocess (Salvucci & Taatgen, 2008). Onlyone can use the procedural process at a time so, multiple threads are managingon a single procedural processor.
The resources are not available to use thethreads concurrently. For example, if there is only one person selling thetickets in the ticket counter; the people can collect the ticket one by onewhereas, the other people should wait in the line to get the tickets(the secondperson can collect the ticket after the first person receive the ticket).Likewise, thread B has to wait until thread A has done with this particularresource.
Finally, there are positive and negative as well for human beings inmultitasking work. REFERENCES: Buser, T. and Peter, N., 2012. Multitasking.
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