MULTITASKING (Bier, Boysson, and Belleville, 2014). In this,



We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

is a human behavior that accepts people to handle several tasks concurrently or
with multiple-task switches (Lee & Taatgen, 2002).
Multitasking is a human context, is the practice of doing several things
continuously (Margaret Rouse, 2013), such as editing a document or responding
to the email while attending a teleconference. Due to some research women are
expert in multitasking, for example According to (Buser and Peter (2012)) women
are far better at multitasking, such as feeding the child while preparing the
food. Communicating with another person while driving a car, planning and
executing responses to evade accident, or having a conversation through mobile
while crossing the street are a few examples of daily activities that require
divided attention between two or more concurrent task (Bier, Boysson, and
Belleville, 2014).

 In this, there is a variant
address that has been found in the human and also that is relevant to the workplace
i.e., people who switch between the multiple tasks. There is another relevant
example for multitask is when people doing multiple tasks in the computer,
switching back and forth between the windows or mobiles or tabs. Not only the
young people can process the multitask work the old people can also do the
multitask things. The greatest progression of modern technologies is from
radios, telephones, television, desktop machines and especially the cell phones
that allow the people to make several things concurrently.


          Time is a key dimension
of multitasking. The important thing for each an every household is taking care
of their children along with that they have multitasked work to do at home like
cleaning, cooking and doing laundry as well. The
household production is more or less like multitasking work, for example
watching a movie, listening to music and having food (altogether will be
happened at the same time). Therefore, our multitask focus on two
commodities: a childhood commodity and a household commodity. The childhood
commodity of sole-tasked time and productivity factor for sole-tasked time are
spent for the production of the child, multitasked time and productivity factor
for multitasked time are spent for the production of both. The household
commodity of sole-tasked time and productivity factor, for sole-tasked time are
spent for the production of the household but for the multitasking factor both
can be used simultaneously. Therefore, the childhood commodity and household
commodity are similar in production. It is not allowing to spend time with that
task for the direct utility.  

 That is, time spent in childcare and in other
household task is allowed to affect the utility only through the amounts of
child and household commodities it produces. The people are happy that
multitasking is the right way to do multiple tasks at the same time and they
will show the result according to the quality of which they produce. (Telford(1931))
In some experiment they demonstrated to check the human behavior by given
dual-task they found that humans are very slow in doing their task. They took
more time to complete the first task due to the distraction of mind until that
second task has to wait for. (Broadhent (1958), Craik (1948), Keele (1973), Pashler
(1994) and Welford (1952)).



            Actually, in the time-based modality,
the humans can’t do the multiple tasks at the same time due to that they have
loss of memory. In fact, they will forget the second process while they are
doing the first one (e.g., Treisman, 1969; Yuille & Ternes, 1975;
Wickelgren, 1965). To find this they made many types of research in that they have
demonstrated to find the information of the human behavior while doing the task
through the short and long-term goals(e.g., Bird and Williams, 2002; Crowder,
1986; Frankish, 1985, 1995; Glenbergand Swanson, 1986). Through this research,
they have accepted a lot of human behaviors while proceeding, the performance. The
time- based modalities in multitasking are like the people can also do the
multiple tasks at the same time within the time limit such as emailing to the
authorizer while listening to the music, whereas typing the essay which is
given by the tutor within the given time limit.

 Not only that, there are more examples of
multitasking is like the simple projects also connect the human-like (employee,
staff and the customer). The customer gives the project and there will be a
link between the employees and staffs to complete the project then, at last,
they will submit the project to the same customer. From one side multitasking
creates the bad impression on the human behaviour For eg., We will be like
chatting on the phone via WhatsApp or Facebook to our friends or family
members, due to that they won’t watch the road and walk, in sometimes it may
cause some accidents (Kahneman (1973) and Hatfield & Murphy (2007)). In the
above example, the multitasking performance is like human need to watch the
roads and signals, they need to chat on the mobile as well. It is a time based
multitask work but when compared to the brain it takes some time to think about
the next step to do work simultaneously (Weaver & Arrington, 2013). The
effects of multitasking not only in task performance we can see multitasking in
academic level as well. The multitasking means it will give more pressure for
the humans to do several things due to that there will be a lot of diversion of
their mind(Jeong & Hwang, (2012). For eg., staff taking class whereas,
students are talking to their friends and taking notes. In this case, the
students should take notes while communicating with their friends, this can
leads to the lots of distraction for the students while taking the notes with
lots of mistakes.

is the challenge for the brain. It needs to think which task to perform first
and that leads to the loss of time. The benefits of multitasking remain
controversial, the humans should do one thing while doing multiple tasks i.e.,
they should divide their task according to their work to complete as soon as
possible for a perfect time sharing. “Every human have the same capacity to
perform a task, while doing several tasks they will have lots of distraction on
their work even though humans have the ability to do their work” (Salvucci
& Taatgen, 2008, p.2).

is a theory called Threaded Cognition Theory. According to that theory, it allows
the parallel processing the task is called as threads(Borst, Taatgen & Van
Rijn, 2010). These threads can run simultaneously and also it can run
independently as well. The thread can also act like multitasking whereas, in
sometimes the second thread has to wait for the first thread to complete the
process (Salvucci & Taatgen, 2008).

one can use the procedural process at a time so, multiple threads are managing
on a single procedural processor. The resources are not available to use the
threads concurrently. For example, if there is only one person selling the
tickets in the ticket counter; the people can collect the ticket one by one
whereas, the other people should wait in the line to get the tickets(the second
person can collect the ticket after the first person receive the ticket).
Likewise, thread B has to wait until thread A has done with this particular
resource. Finally, there are positive and negative as well for human beings in
multitasking work.




Buser, T. and Peter, N., 2012. Multitasking. Experimental Economics, 15(4),


B. De Boysson, C. Belleville, S.,(2014). Modalities to improve multitasking in
older adults, accessed  30 July

Broadbent, D. E.
(1958). Perception and communication. Elsevier.


Bird, A. Stephen,
and Williams, N. John .(2002). Have demonstrated that short and long-term
memory are concerned to accept the modalities of information which are
presented. Accessed 25 Oct 2016.  Cited By-
Nguyen, L


Borst, J. P.,
Taatgen, N. A., & van Rijn, H. (2010). The problem state: A cognitive
bottleneck in multitasking. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning,
Memory and Cognition, 36(2), 363. Accessed 25 Oct 2016. Cited By- Nguyen, L.


Craik, K. J. W.
(1948). Theory of the human operator in control systems. British Journal of
Psychology. General Section, 38(3), 142–148.


Crowder, R. G.
(1986). Auditory and temporal factors in the modality effect. Journal of
Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 12(2), 268.

Cho, Y.S. &
Proctor, R.W. (2003). Loss of productivity. Zeitschrift fur Psychologie,
221(1), 51-60.


Frankish, C.
(1985). The grouping effects in short and long-term memory. Journal of Memory
and Language, 24(2), 200-209.


 Frankish, C. (1995). Intonation and auditory
grouping in the immediate serial recall. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 9(7),


Glenberg, A. M.,
& Swanson, N. G. (1986). A temporal distinctiveness theory of recency and
modality effects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and
Cognition, 12(1), 3.


Hatfield, J
& Murphy, S. (2007). It shows how multitasking affects the human behavior.
Accessed 25 Oct 2016. By Nguyen, L.


Kahneman, D.
(1973). Attention and Effort. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Kaiser
Family Foundation. (2006). Media multitasking among American youth: Prevalence,
predictors, and pairings. Retrieved from
Accessed 25 Oct 2016. Cited By- Nguyen, L.


Keele, S. W.
(1973). Attention and human performance. Goodyear Publishing Company


Lee & Taatgen, 2002Lee,
F. J. and Taatgen,
N. A.2002, August.
“Multi-tasking as skill acquisition”.
In Proceedings of the twenty-fourth annual conference of the cognitive
science society, 572–577.
Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.


Margaret Rouse 2013, multitasking (in humans). Margaret
Rouse, accessed 13 November 2017,


Pashler, H.
(1994). Graded capacity-sharing in dual-task interference? Journal of
Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 20(2), 330.


Salvucci, D. D.,
& Taatgen, N. A. (2008). P.2 “Every human have the capacity to complete the
multiple task” Threaded cognition: An integrated theory of concurrent
multitasking. Psychological Review, 115(1), 101–130.
Accessed 25 Oct 2016. Cited By- Nguyen, L.


 Telford, E.D. (1931). The experiment of two
overlapping task and the time it takes to complete the first task.


Treisman, A. M.
(1969). Strategies and models of selective attention. Psychological Review,
76(3), 282. Whether similar modalities are combined with the process of information
and loss of memory. Accessed 25 Oct 2016. Cited By- Nguyen, L.

Welford. (1952).
Processing of dual-task performance simultaneously: data and theory.
Psychological Bulletin, 116(2), 220-244. Accessed 25 Oct 2016. Cited By-
Nguyen, L.


Wickelgren, W.
A. (1965). Acoustic similarity and retroactive interference in short-term
memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 4(1), 53-61. Accessed
25 Oct 2016. Cited By- Nguyen, L.


Weaver, S.M
& Arrington, C.M. (2013). Tracking the multitasking mind how it performs Accessed
25 Oct 2016. Cited By- Nguyen, L.


Wang, Z., &
Tchernev, J. M. (2012). The “myth” of media multitasking: Reciprocal dynamics
of media multitasking, personal needs, and gratifications. Journal of Communication,
62(3), 493.


Yuille, J. C.,
& Ternes, W. (1975). Attention and modality-specific interference as
determinants of short-term verbal and visual retention. Canadian Journal of
Psychology, 29(4), 360. Accessed 25 Oct 2016. Cited By- Nguyen, L.






















I'm William!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out