Migration on the basis of the nature of

as the population movement of people across borders or within state can be seen
as a double edge sword. It is marked with outgoing displacement crisis, political
instabilities, natural disasters and policy changes on arrivals, integration,
and border enforcement among states.

No matter
the reasons for the movement, one country tends to be at the receiving end of increasing
population and the other in the reducing population end. Deciding if migration
is an asset or a burden to the involved states is very complicated. In order to
clearly assess the effects of migration, this paper explores the effect on the
basis of the nature of movement: forced or voluntary migration.

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In forced
migration, an authority, government or natural factor forces person(s) to
migrate. Migration has always been a logical way in which societies solved
problems such as unemployment, conflicts that threaten lives and livelihood,
poverty, famine and natural disasters such as earthquakes and volcanos. In late
October 1998, central America was hit with one of the deadliest hurricane, Hurricane
Mitch, in the history of man, killing over 10,000 people, leaving several
millions homeless. Banana production was halted leaving over 17,000 farmers
unemployed and dumping over 25 inches of water on land making agricultural
activities impossible (Central America: Hurricane Mitch Causes Catastrophic Damage,
Claims Over 10,000 Lives, 1999). In such situations, migration provide a
rational solution for the sending state. Similar argument could made for states
undergoing such crisis including Syria and South Sudan. Each protecting several
thousands of citizens from violence or natural disaster (The UN Refugee Agency,

The story
is different for receiving states when it comes to forced migration of several
thousands of people. Accommodating an influx of several thousands of people
daily is financially expensive, labor intensive and require several diplomatic
procedures (The UN Refugee Agency, 2017). For instance, UNHCR estimate that US$781.8
million is needed to support South Sudanese refugees in the region (The UN
Refugee Agency, 2017). That is a lot of money considering that the receiving
countries are developing countries. Some receiving states sometimes engage in humanitarian
efforts such as providing refugees lands to farm and including them
in-development projects and employment opportunities making it more expensive
to cater for thousands of migrants. Influx of refugee has also been found to
cause or accelerate conflicts and insecurity example is influx of Iraqi refugee
in 2007 to Syria led to increase in tension and violence in the region (Landry,

It may be
argued that migration especially economic migration might disadvantage the
sending economy through the loss of youthful workers and skilled professionals.

This is true for the short-run

It may be
argued that voluntary migration might cost sending states economic losses such
as labor, brain-drain and taxes. This may be true in the short-run but in the
long term, the economy of sending nations tend to receive huge remittance from
its citizens abroad. As at 2009, Indian alone received over $45 billion as
remittance (The Economist, 2009). Economists agree on the importance of skilled
migrants, but there is a debate on the importance of unskilled migrants. One
clear point is that unskilled migrants results in cheaper labour and increase
in production which in the long-run benefit the state in the form of lower
prices of food, housing and health care (Holzer, 2011).

has never been an obstacle to development, when it is humanely managed,
integrated in developmental strategies,  


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