Konovsky and S. DouglasPugh., (1994) hasconducted a study on “Citizenship Behavior and Social Exchange” and had examineda social exchange model of organizational citizenship behavior. An employee’strust in a supervisor is proposed to mediate the relationship betweenprocedural fairness in the supervisor’s decision making and employeecitizenship.
Data from 475 hospital employees and their supervisors wereconsistent with their model. They discussed the research directions also. Organ andRyan (1995) has conducted a research on”A Meta-AnalyticReview of Attitudinal and Dispositional Predictors of Organizational CitizenshipBehavior” and found that the relationship between jobsatisfaction and Organizational citizenship behavior is stronger than thatbetween satisfaction and in-role performance, at least among non-managerial andnonprofessional groups. Other attitudinal measures such as perceived fairnessand leader supportiveness correlate with organizational citizenship behavior atroughly the same level of satisfaction. Dennis W. Organ.
, (1995), examined the relationship between job satisfactions. Dispositionalmeasures do not correlate nearly as well with OCB (with the exception ofconscientiousness). The most notable moderator of these correlations appears tobe the use of self- versus other-rating of OCB; self-ratings are associatedwith higher correlations, suggesting spurious inflation due to common methodvariance, and much greater variance in correlation. Differences in subjectgroups and work settings do not account for much variance in the relationships.Implications are noted for theory, practice, and strategies for future researchon OCB. Philip M. Podsakoff,Michael Ahearne, And Scott B.
Mackenzie (1995) hasconducted research on “OrganizationalCitizenship Behavior And The Quantity And Quality Of Work Group Performance” Despitethe widespread interest in the topic of organizational citizenship behaviors(OCBs), little empirical research has tested the fundamental assumption thatthese forms of behavior improve the effectiveness of work groups ororganizations in which they are exhibited. In the present study, the effects ofOCBs on the quantity and quality of the performance of 218 people working in 40machine crews in a paper mill located in the Northeastern United States wereexamined. The results indicate that helping behavior and sportsmanship had significanteffects on performance quantity and that helping behavior had a significantimpact on performance quality.
However, civic virtue had no effect on eitherperformance measure. Scott B MacKenzie et al., (1997) has conducted a study on “The Effects ofOrganizational Citizenship Behaviors and Objective Sales Productivity onManagers ‘ Evaluations of Salespersons ‘ Performance” which investigates the effects of “organizational citizenshipbehaviors” and objective sales productivity on managers’ evaluations ofsalespersons’ performance. Covariance structure analysis indicated thatmanagers’ subjective evaluations of salespersons’ performance are determined asmuch by the salespersons’ altruism and civic virtue as by objectiveproductivity levels in the primary sample. Similar results were also obtainedin the validation sample. Moreover, these findings were robust to the effectsof common method biases. PrithvirajChattopadhyay.
, (1999) has conducted aresearch on “Determinants Of Executive Beliefs: Comparing FunctionalConditioning And Social Influence” Which arguedthat employees’ attraction to and trust in their peers, and theirorganization-based self-esteem mediate the effect of demographic dissimilarityon organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Data from a field study support amodel in which the relationship between demographic dissimilarity and OCB iscontingent on demographic characteristics and work group composition andmediated to an extent by the proposed mediators. The influence of racedissimilarity varied in strength for white and minority employees, but theinfluence of age dissimilarity varied in direction for older and youngeremployees. Wagner etal. (2000) conducted a studyon “Peer Ratings of AltruisticOrganizational Citizenship Behavior” in a sample of 96 U.
S. nurses showedthat the dispositional variable of moral judgment was a unique predictor ofaltruistic organizational citizenship behavior among the older participants.Every employee will like to see moral behavior of top management; this can onlybe provided by providing an environment of moral judgment. Jill Kickul et al.
, (2002), in his project on “Does Trust Matter? The Relationship between EquitySensitivity and Perceived Organizational Justice” Results revealed that procedural justice has a significant effecton responses to breaches of extrinsic outcomes while interactional justicesignificantly affects employee responses to breaches of intrinsic outcomes.Specifically, significant two-way interactions between extrinsic contractbreach and procedural justice showed that job satisfaction, in- role jobperformance, and organizational citizenship behaviour were lower and intentionsto leave were higher when procedural justice was perceived to be low followingan extrinsic contract breach. Furthermore, significant two-way interactionsbetween intrinsic contract breach and interactional justice revealed that jobsatisfaction, in-role job performance, and organizational citizenship behaviourdirected towards other individuals were lower and intentions to leave werehigher when interactional justice was perceived to be low following anintrinsic contract breach. Implications of the differential roles of proceduraland interactional justice are discussed.