Mariana Perez Sister Genevieve Prendergast Honors Chemistry 8 January 2018 The Chemistry of Perfume Perfumery is the earliest form of chemistry in history. One of the first ever chemists was a perfumer named Tapputi from Mesopotamia. The use of perfume has played an important role in many cultures. By studying ancient texts and wall paintings, it is shown that perfume was first established by the Egyptians. The texts show Egyptians using perfume as part of religious ceremonies and praising their gods. The rich Egyptian societies would wear aromas like lily to show their status and wealth. Over the centuries, multiple cultures adopted the use of perfume thus why perfume making is now a multi-billion dollar industry. People all over the world today use perfume in cosmetics, personal care, home fragrances, and medical treatment.The Egyptians associated their fragrances with the gods. Fragrances were considered to be the sweat of the sun god, Ra. In ancient Egypt, frankincense, opoponax, and myrrh were used. Throughout ancient Africa, various scented oils were used as sun protection as well as for their smell. In Mesopotamia and Babylonia, favored scents included cedar, myrrh, frankincense, and cypress. Oils were generally used as the carriers to take on the strong scents. Most of the scents were plant-based, ranging from flowers to resins and woods. Many ancient perfumes were made by pressing or steaming out the natural oils from plants. To make the earliest fragrances, the Egyptians used the ancient method of pressing. This was squeezing fragrant oils from flowers and other plants, then mixing it with animal fat or other oils. Egyptians also boiled the plant parts or subject them to steam to get to the oils. This process is called steam distillation. Perfume is a combination of fragrant oils and solvents. The component of the perfume that provides the scent is extracted from a natural plant or animal sources or can be made by chemists in the lab. Other than extraction, chemists can now create hundreds of different fragrance oils through synthetic formulation by mixing various chemicals together to get a specific scent. These synthetic molecules allow for longer lasting, more durable fragrances that can be made in larger quantities. This creates for lots of different combinations, thus why there are more than a million different types of fragrances. The durability of the fragrance coincides with tith the combination of head, heart, and base notes, which all evaporate at different rates. All perfumes are composed of both a base and a fragrance compound. The main components of perfume are a perfume oil, an alcohol, and water. The base is commonly alcohol or water. Ethyl alcohol is usually used as a base because it evaporates quickly on the skin. Other common bases include Coumarin, Benzyl Benzoate, Phthalates, beeswax. Based on the different rated that the synthetic molecules evaporate, we smell different parts of the perfume at different times. Head notes consist of small molecules that evaporate quickly. Heart notes are medium sized molecules that begin to smell after the head notes have evaporated. Base notes are large molecules that take the longest to evaporate, thus staying on the skin for many hours. Since head notes evaporate first, they give off their scent first, then followed by the heart notes, then base notes. The grouping of carbon atoms linked to oxygen atoms is known as the ester functionality. Esters different smells that are are combined in labs with carboxylic acids and alcohols in a reaction called esterification in order to create different sweet, flowery, and fruity scents in perfume. Water acts as a byproduct.By combining different acids and alcohols, the different kinds of scents can are inventedCarboxylicAcid Alcohol ScentButyric AcidMethanol PineappleButyric AcidEthanolStrawberry Formic AcidIsobutanol RaspberryPentanoic AcidPentanolAppleAcetic AcidIsopentanolPearAcetic AcidOctanolOrangeAcetic AcidBenzoylJasminePerfumes today are being made and used in different ways than in previous centuries. Recently, perfumes are being manufactured with synthetic chemicals more frequently rather than natural oils due to the quickness and longevity of scent. Perfume is used daily by the world for cosmetic reasons, health, and religious purposes. Perfume can also have a positive inpact on a person through aromatherapy. Aromatherapy is known as smelling oils and fragrances to cure physical and emotional problems. This is being used to help balance body energy and increase a positive mood. By using essential oils, Aromatherapy is also said to help the immune system when inhaled or applied. Another form of aromatherapy is psychotherapy, which can affect ones mood when a person smells pleasing, sweet smells.Since the beginning of recorded history, humans have attempted to mask or enhance their own odor by using perfume. The use of perfume goes back to 1000 BC, when Egyptians used it for religious ceremonies, and to show their wealth. The Egyptians made perfumes by pressing and steaming the natural oils from plants or other objects in nature. Now, synthetic formulas made in labs have expanded the perfume-making industry. In the United states, these industries have benefited greatly and have an annual sales totalling billions of dollars. True perfumes are defined as extracts or essences and contain a percentage of oil distilled in alcohol. Overall, the use of perfume begins centuries back and is still used today for multiple reasons including religious ceremonies, cosmetic reasons, and aromatherapy. Works Cited Anne, Posted by, and Posted by Josh for Congress. “Posts about Perfume on BCA Chemistry.” BCA Chemistry, bcachemistry.wordpress.com/tag/perfume/.”Perfume.com Customer Support Center.” Discount Perfumewww.perfume.com/article-history-of-perfume.”Perfume.” How Products Are Made, www.madehow.com/Volume-2/Perfume.html.www.sciencecamps.psu.edu/news/2014-news/pdfs/science-of-perfume-valentines-day-science.