Management,according to “Knowledge Management Terms”, Daniel D.
Stuhlman (2009) “is the organizational process that includesstrategic planning, setting objectives, managing resources, deploying the humanand financial assets needed to achieve objectives, and measure resultsGN1 .” One of if not the most importantpart of being a manager is leadership which is the process of social influencewhich maximizes efforts for others towards achievement of a goal. In terms of sport, according to Ziegler, asport manager is traditionally defined as the person who plans, organizes,recruits staff, directs and controls gradual steps leading to the previouslyset objective in various sports programmes for people of all ages.
Even though some aspects of being a sportsmanager are different in areas like strategic management, organisational structure,Human Resource Management, Marketing and Leadership, sport managers use similarmanagerial theories, styles and techniques as the managers of otherorganisations such as hospitals and banks. Some of these managerial styles includeLaissez-faire, democratic, autocratic and paternalistic.Paternalisticleadership is defined “as treating a relationship with discipline, fatherlyauthority and morality embedded in it”. (Farh and Cheng 2000) It is amanagerial approach that involves a dominant authority figure who acts as a patriarchor matriarch and treats employees and partners as a large family.
The leaderexpects loyalty, trust and obedience in return. There are many advantages anddisadvantages to this management style. One advantage is that employees wouldbegin to feel like they are being heard and their needs are being met sincefeedback is invited and encouraged, this would lead them to be loyal to theirleader and the company and increase their moral. Employees also know that mostdecisions will be made with the employees’ best interests at heart. Withadvantages come disadvantages and just like a parent, managers will have tosometimes discipline employees. Even though employees have a say it is still upto the head to make the decision. If the decision doesn’t go the employees’ way,moral could go down resulting in power struggles and internal issues.
Autocraticleadership also known as authoritarian is a style that is based solely oncontrol over every decision being made with little to no input by the employeesor group members. In an autocratic lead company, the leader makes the choicesbased on their ideas and what they think is right. They hardly ever takeadvice.
In autocratic leadership, group members are barely trusted withimportant decisions or tasks. Although it may seem negative, autocraticleadership does in fact have some advantages. In some cases, when a decisionneeds to be made quickly on the spot or a project requires strong leadership,the leader tends to be more decisive and able to get things done quickly andefficiently. As obvious as it may seem, many people can get extremely carriedaway in their tyranny and abuse the autocratic role and this can lead to annoyanceto the employees and resentment towards the leader.
enough to do everything”.In thestyle of Laissez-faire, the manger tends to be more of a mentor and an “armaround the shoulder” to employees. Employees are then allowed to make decisionson their own and are assisted by the manager when guidance is needed. This canlead to employees being independent and then therefore becoming more creative butthe problem is that the manager may seem like he/she isn’t doing any work andthe employees may get frustrated. Even though it is good for employees to beindependant, they may begin to think that the manager is not needed. A balanceis therefore needed between letting the employees make decisions and themanager making decisions for them. Democraticleadership is a type of leadership where members of the group participate inthe process of decision-making. The definitionsof democratic leadership conceptualized by White and Lippitt (1960) emphasize “groupparticipation, discussion, and group decisions encouraged by the leader”.
Ademocratic leader delegates responsibility among members of his/her team duringthe decision-making process. This goes hand in hand with Carlo Ancelotti’s (2016)Statement As stated in hisbook “Quiet Leadership”, “Never be afraid to delegate; “nobody’s good enough todo everything.” Allowing employees and group members to participate in decisionmaking increases innovation to address problems and serve the organizationbetter. While involving everyone is good, the process of consultation couldresult in not only procrastination but a delay in the process. This is becauseit takes time to talk to many individuals and collect opinions and data.
Everymanagement style has its advantages and disadvantages. Some may have moreadvantages while others may have more disadvantages. With that said, successfulmanagers possess the ability to adapt to different situations and match thestyle needed accordingly. GN1