can therefore arise either due to the influence of the mother tongue, so we can
speak about language interference or because of difficulty in mastering the
word (Laufer, 1997). Next, James (James, 1998: 192) classifies lexical errors
to formal and semantic, where formal include: the misapplication of the word
the error in the form of the word2,
the distortion of the word3.
Semantic errors are related to meaningful relationships4
and errors in the selection of collocations5.
According to Presa and
Bade (Diana Presada and Michaela Bade, 2014: 55), these errors are actually the
basic errors that students make, but also, there are those errors (in the
minority) that should be taken into
1 Sufiksalni tip (significant / considerate); prefix
type (reserve / preserve); type based on vowels (manual / menial; conservation
type (save / safe) (?arapi?, D. 1998: 193).
2 Banks pointing out the words of the mother tongue,
which are used in foreign language without any changes (room / sale) (Laki?,
2001: 5); calculi resulting from interference from the mother tongue
(economical situation / economic situation) (?arapi?, D. 1998: 193).
3 Omitting the graph (interesting / interesting);
unnecessary addition of a dining room / dining room; error in the order of
letters (littel / little), etc. (?arapi?, D. 1998: 193).
4 Use of superons instead of
hippies (We have modern equipment in our house / appliances); the use of
hippons instead of superons (The colonels / officers live in the castle); use
of appropriate co-hippons (I think the city has good communication / public
transport such as a lot of buses); using the wrong approximation synonyms
(regretful / penitent). (?arapi?, D. 1998: 193).
5 Semantically determined word selection (The city
was grown / developed); syntactically wrong choice (An army has suffered big
losses / heavy losses); Within syntax, we further divide: inadequate form of
word, incomplete word form or syntagm, inappropriate choice of word type (See
Carapic, D. 1998: 195).