Few He is an acknowledged expert on


Few episodes in history are more painful to Americans than the CivilWar, fought between the North and the South. This biography, GreatAmerican Generals – Robert E. Lee, by Ian Hogg, takes the reader throughthe life of one of the greatest heroes of that war, Robert E. Lee. It is athorough, in depth record of the life of Lee and begins with a detailed accountof his family history and his birth, through his college years, militaryexperience and his work in later life to his death on October 12, 1870.

Thefirst few pages set the scene by listing a substantial amount of facts about thenames and backgrounds of his parents Harry and Ann and Lee’s wife, MaryCustis, with some reference to his father’s army career and political life. After Lee’s early years, the reader will learn of his schooling at the MilitaryAcademy, West Point, followed by his life in the Army before and after theCivil War. The biography ends in the latter pages with an account of hiswork after his military career came to an end, and finally, with his death aftera prolonged period of ill-health, thought to be stress induced.Author Ian Hogg is a prolific writer in the field of defense and militarytechnology.

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He is a weapons expert, having written many books on all typesof rifles, shotguns and small arms, such as Modern Rifles, Shotguns andPistols, and Modern Small Arms. He is an acknowledged expert on infantryweapons and is thought to be the world’s leading expert on this and artillerystrategies. He is a well known author of military history, and works as aweapons evaluator in addition to his writing.Robert E. Lee was born in Stratford, Virginia on January 19, 1807. His father, Henry Lee, had achieved fame with Washington’s army as”Lighthorse Harry,”and it was a fame that rested not only on his cavalryexploits but upon sound strategic and tactical ability. A significant portion ofhis fame was credited to him for beating off a surprise British attack at SpreadEagle Tavern in January, 1778. Unfortunately Harry was egotistical and had a high opinion of his own abilities.

Although he achieved the rank oflieutenant-colonel, he felt that he deserved more. When the war ended and hehad not advanced in rank he resigned from the army to pursue a career inpolitics. Henry decided to run for the position of governor. He was electedGovernor of Virginia for three terms. Retiring, as was then customary inVirginia, on the expiration of his third term, Henry Lee was enough in thepublic eye to be considered as a possible successor to Washington. He was,however, a poor manager of his affairs, and was constantly dodging hiscreditors, providing very little of substance for his family.

He was a waster,with no thought for their welfare. A man with no sense of responsibility tohis affairs, Henry Lee eventually ended up in jail for a year for non-paymentof his debts. Upon his release, he spent every waking moment writing hismemoirs, with no regard for his family at all.Lee’s mother was Ann Carter Lee, daughter of Charles Carter. She wasan invalid, but possessed a strong and beautiful character, and Robert grewup with a keen sense of honor and responsibility. Robert was named after hismother’s brothers, Edward and Robert Carter.Lee’s father, Henry, was separated from the family when Robert wasonly four years old.

Lee’s mother left Henry due to his lack of provision forthem, and Lee assumed the responsibility of the household at a very early age. Henry subsequently died when Lee was only eleven, but Lee’s struggle tomaintain the household without the presence of a father, and with littlemoney, taught him valuable lessons in self-discipline, lessons whichsupported him well in his military career.Since there was no money for college, Robert entered the U.S. MilitaryAcademy in 1825 to pursue a career in the military. He was fortunate inbecoming a Cadet at the Institution at a time when the Superintendent wasMajor Sylvanus Thayer, the man who started West Point on its way to fameas a military training school. He was the second to graduate in a class of 46.

Upon graduation, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in theEngineering Corps, a division of the Army which at that time received onlythe best Cadets. Unfortunately his pleasure and success diminished when hereturned home to Arlington to find his mother in the last stages of her illness,and he diligently nursed her there until she died in July of 1829.Soon after Lee received orders saying that he was to report toCockspur Island to help with the construction of Fort Pulaski. While there hecorresponded with Mary Custis, the daughter of Martha Washington’sgrandson. She was also daughter of the wealthy George Washington ParkeCustus, who upon his death left her two beautiful Virginia estates, Arlingtonand Whitehouse. In 1831, although against Mr.

Custis’s wishes, he marriedMary Custus. The first place the Lees went after their marriage was Fort Monroe. Mary Custis despised Fort Monroe.

During a Christmas visit back toArlington, she made the decision to remain there. In the Spring, Robert rodeback to ask her to return, which she did. By this time she was pregnant andgave birth to their first child, George Washington Parke Custis Lee. The Leeshad four daughters and three sons.

All three of their sons served in theConfederate Army. Lee’s wife never adjusted to the rigors of army posts andshe and the children lived at Arlington until the war between the states, whentheir home fell into the hands of federal forces. Arlington was taken by theU.S. Government and was never restored to the Lee family, although one timethe family had sued to get it back and was granted an indemnity.

On the outbreak of the Mexican War, in 1846, Lee was appointed toGeneral Winfield Scott’s personal staff. He proceeded to Brazos on January16, 1847. The General was deep in preparations for the battle at Vera Cruz. This was to be Lee’s first experience under actual fire. Because of hisbrilliant leadership and skill in strategy, he won the praise of General Scott. Scott called Lee “the greatest military genius in America”, and “the bestsoldier I ever saw in the field.” Lee was there to see the surrender of theMexicans on March 29th. He survived many more encounters with theenemy in the war with Mexico.

He arrived back in Washington on June 29,1848, having been away for one year and ten months.When Lee entered the war, he was a captain. He emerged with therank of Colonel. His next duty was in Baltimore where he supervised theconstruction of Fort Carroll. This was to be his last engineering projectbecause his next stop, in August 1852, was The United States MilitaryAcademy.

He became Superintendent at West Point in 1852. In his threeyears of service there, Lee established some highly successful procedureswhich contributed to the reputation of the Academy.On April 12, 1855, Lee was sent to Louisville, Kentucky to takecommand of the 2nd. Cavalry. As Colonel of Cavalry, Lee spent most of thenext six years in Texas. In 1859, while visiting Arlington, he received a notefrom Colonel Drinkard ordering him to report to the Secretary of Warimmediately. At Harper’s Ferry trains had been stopped; firing had beenheard; rumor had it that many strangers had arrived and were inciting slavesto rioting.

It was reported to Lee that the leader of the gang was called JohnBrown, a notorious antislavery fanatic from Kansas, who had been unable torally the slaves to rebellion and was finally besieged in a fire-house. Lee wasto lead the United States Marines, to suppress John Brown’s Raid at Harper’sFerry. He asked Brown for his surrender, anticipating that this would nothappen. When Brown refused to surrender, Lee ordered the door of thefirehouse, in which Brown’s band had taken refuge, to be battered down. Thetroops had strict orders to attack only with bayonets, not to fire a single shot,in case any of the hostages would be wounded. The whole operation wasover in three minutes.In the beginning of the war between the states, Lee found himselffacing the most difficult decision of his life.

He believed in the abolition ofslavery, but not by force. He believed in a united nation, but not one thatcould be maintained only by swords and bayonets. When President Lincolnasked him to take command of the Federal troops in the field, Lee replied thathe could not take part in an invasion of his native state. He offered hisresignation and within a few days, he was commissioned to General in theConfederate Army. He served as military advisor to Jefferson Davis, asCommander of the Army of Northern Virginia and then as General-in-chief ofall Confederate Armies.The history of Lee’s conduct in the Confederate campaign is a story ofa heroic struggle against overwhelming odds. In the first two years of thewar, the South made considerable headway, successfully resisting GeneralMcClellan’s attempt to take Richmond. But there were never enough men,food, or guns.

The transportation problem became progressively worse, andthe Armies were continually at the mercy of political plunderers. Against thesuperior forces of the Union, Lee pitted all the strategy of a master soldierand he was able to deliver shattering blows at Bull Run, Fredericksburg, andChancellorville. All of this was to come to an end with the arrival of thebattle at Gettysburg. This was to be the turning point of the whole war. OnJuly 1st, Lee rode towards Gettysburg, hearing the sound of gunfire in thedistance. A few days later, having sustained tremendous casualties, Lee wasplanning his retreat.

With the defeat of Lee’s army at Gettysburg, however, in July, 1863,the tide turned against the south. That was the last time Lee was able to gainan offensive position. On April 9, 1865, realizing that further resistance wasa waste of time, he surrendered his near starving, depleted army to GeneralUlysses S.

Grant, the Union commander in chief, at Appomattox CourtHouse, Virginia. He penned a farewell address to his men and set off the nextday to Richmond, where his family had been living since they had abandonedArlington.His home confiscated, his family impoverished, and his heart heavy,with the burden of defeated South, Lee turned to the task of reconciliation. He applied immediately for pardon and restoration to citizenship, feeling thatthis example might lead other Confederates to do the same. He tried everyway to heal the breach between the North and the South.

Positions of great honor and remuneration were offered to Lee, both inhis own country and abroad, but he had no desire to enter into politicallycontroversial activities. In the Summer of 1865 he was offered thePresidency of Washington College (renamed Washington & Lee Universityafter his death), in Lexington, VA. The college was virtually in ruins, but Leeaccepted the position after he was ensured his connection with the collegewould not injure it in any way.

Lee’s friends and relatives were shocked atthe idea that Lee would accept a position at such a small school. He hadreceived offers from many bigger and wealthier places.Lee, on the otherhand, saw far beyond the title and looked on this as an opportunity to helprebuild the South by educating it’s youth.Lee truly felt his great purpose inlife was to help make a united country and to this end he set about to educateSouthern youth into a renewed spirit of loyalty. Lee accepted the post andheaded for the college campus in Lexington.

Once there, Lee found that aswell as being President of the college, he was also Dean, Bursar, Registrar,Head Gardener, and general factotum. His salary was $125 per month, andhe had one secretary to assist him. Nonetheless, Lee set to his task and beganwriting to other institutions begging for money.Once the President’s house was ready, Lee’s wife and daughters joinedhim there. Lee’s sons were busy attempting to salvage the family estates,although Arlington was gone forever, forfeited for nonpayment of taxesduring the war, when Union authorities insisted that delinquent taxpayershad to make payment in person, and it was by this time surrounded by amilitary cemetery – as it still is (pg.

75).Under Lee’s guidance, Washington College prospered. The studentbody increased to four-hundred. The curriculum was widened, new buildingswere gradually added, and as the fame of the college spread, students camefrom all over the United States.As the months went by, Lee’s health began to fail.

He was treated frorheumatism, lumbago, and other complaints, but the plain fact was his heartwas wearing out. In the Spring of 1869, Lee visited Baltimore in an effort toraise money for a railroad project. From there he went on to Washington,where he visited his old friend, General Grant, who was now President of theUnited States. When Lee returned from Washington, he began to doubt his ability tocontinue as President of the college. He stated that the job needed a fitterman than he. His talk of resignation was dismissed, and the faculty, early in1870, suggested that he should go south for a vacation to help regain hishealth. In the Summer of 1870, it was unusually hot, and Lee tired easily.

Hewas no longer able to ride horse. On September 28, it rained and Lee had toattend a church vestryman’s meeting, where he sat in his wet clothes andlistened to the minister complain about his wages. When Lee finally returnedhome, he entered his house, stood silent, and then collapsed in a chair. Hiswife promptly sent for a doctor.The doctors conferred and sent Lee to bed. For the next two days Leeslept most of the time.

After that, he seemed to improve and began to eat. But when he was offered medicine, he refused saying “it was no use”. For thenext two weeks he stayed in bed. On October 10, Lee’s pulse and breathingsped up and he suffered shivering spells. On the following day, Lee becamedelirious, and his mind wandered to the past. He occasionally called out somelong forgotten names. “Tell Hill he must come up,” he cried.

His wife satholding his hand the whole night, until just after 9:00 am of October 12, 1870,Lee sat up, cried out “strike the tent”, fell back in bed and died. He wasburied beneath the college chapel, and the entire nation mourned his passing. By his courage in war and dignity in defeat, he had won the admiration andesteem of Northerners and Southerners alike. SummaryRobert E.

Lee was born in Stratford, Virginia on January 19, 1807. His father, Henry Lee, had achieved fame with Washington’s army as”Lighthorse Harry.”Lee’s mother was Ann Carter Lee, daughter of Charles Carter. She leftHenry when Robert was only four years old, and Lee assumed theresponsibility of the household at a very early age. Lee’s struggle to maintainthe household without the presence of a father, and with little money, taughthim valuable lessons in self-discipline, lessons which supported him well inhis military career.Robert entered the U.

S. Military Academy in 1825 to pursue a careerin the military. He was the second to graduate in a class of 46. Upongraduation, he was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the EngineeringCorps. In 1831, he married Mary Custus, Martha Washington’sgreat-grandaughter.

The first place the Lees went after their marriage wasFort Monroe. They were there for three years, moving on to Arlington in1834. The Lees had four daughters and three sons. Lee’s wife never adjustedto the rigors of army posts and she and the children lived at Arlington untilthe war between the states, when their home fell into the hands of federalforces. On the outbreak of the Mexican War, in 1846, Lee was appointed toGeneral Winfield Scott’s personal staff.

Because of his brilliant leadershipand skill in strategy, he won the praise of General Scott. He survived manymore encounters with the enemy in the war with Mexico. He arrived back inWashington on June 29, 1848, having been away for one year and tenmonths.When Lee entered the war, he was a captain.

He emerged with therank of Colonel. His next duty was in Baltimore where he supervised theconstruction of Fort Carroll. He became Superintendent at West Point in1852. In his three years of service there, Lee established some highlysuccessful procedures which contributed to the reputation of the Academy.On April 12, 1855, Lee was sent to Louisville, Kentucky to takecommand of the 2nd.

Cavalry. As Colonel of Cavalry, Lee spent most of thenext six years in Texas.Lee was then sent to lead the United States Marinesto suppress John Brown’s Raid at Harper’s Ferry.

When Lee arrived atHarper’s Ferry, he ordered the door of the firehouse, in which Brown’s bandhad taken refuge, to be battered down. The whole operation was over inthree minutes.In the beginning of the war between the states, Lee found himselffacing the most difficult decision of his life.

He believed in the abolition ofslavery, but not by force. He believed in a united nation, but not one thatcould be maintained only by swords and bayonets. When President Lincolnasked him to take command of the Federal troops in the field, Lee refused.

Lee resigned from the Army a few days later. He was commissioned toGeneral in the Confederate Army. He served as military advisor to JeffersonDavis, as Commander of the Army of Northern Virginia and then asGeneral-in-chief of all Confederate Armies.

In the first two years of the war, the South made considerableheadway, successfully resisting General McClellan’s attempt to takeRichmond. But there were never enough men, food, or guns. Thetransportation problem became progressively worse, and the Armies werecontinually at the mercy of political plunderers. Against the superior forces ofthe Union, Lee pitted all the strategy of a master soldier and he was able todeliver shattering blows at Bull Run, Fredericksburg, and Chancellorville. Allof this was to come to an end with the arrival of the battle at Gettysburg. This was to be the turning point of the whole war. With the defeat of Lee’s army at Gettysburg, however, in July, 1863,the tide turned against the south.

That was the last time Lee was able to gainan offensive position. On April 9, 1865, he surrendered his near starving,depleted army to General Ulysses S. Grant, the Union commander in chief, atAppomattox Court House, Virginia. He set off the next day to Richmond,where his family had been living since they had abandoned Arlington.

Afterthe war he applied immediately for pardon and restoration to citizenship,feeling that this example might lead other Confederates to do the same. Hetried every way to heal the breach between the North and the South.In the Summer of 1865 he was offered the Presidency of WashingtonCollege in Lexington, VA.

The college was virtually in ruins, but Leeaccepted the position after he was ensured his connection with the collegewould not injure it in any way. Lee accepted the post and headed for thecollege campus in Lexington. The strain of putting the poverty strickencollege back on its feet and the problems of reconstruction took its toll, andLee’s health began to fail. He died on October 12, 1870, and was buriedbeneath the college chapel.AnalysisGreat American Generals – Robert E. Lee, by Ian Hogg, is an in-depthrecounting of the life and death of Robert E.

Lee, one of America’s greatheroes. It begins with an account of Lee’s family history, that of his parents,and the circumstances into which he was born on January 19, 1807, and endswith his death on October 12, 1870. Hogg relates the intervening years in an extremely interesting fashion,providing many fascinating and detailed pieces of information. The story ispresented in a way that keeps the interest of the reader, and is not boring,even when giving statistics of the various campaigns that Lee undertook. Thebook appeals not just to Lee fans, but to all history students.

The pages are filled with numerous detailed maps, and colorful picturesthat enhance the view of Lee and his life. Military students will delight in thedescriptions of the war, while students of Lee’s character are rewarded byfascinating facts of his and his parent’s lives.Hogg presents this painful episode in America’s history in a balanced,non-judgemental way. He portrays Lee as a man of great integrity and honor,a true Southern gentleman, and casts no slurs concerning the fact that Leewas on the losing side of a war in which there were no winners.This is an exciting and informative book and is one of the moreenjoyable books which are required reading for this course. ————————————————————–

Mr |Outgoing|0 | |Max Repayment |$2,210.0| |


Mr Tim Budge and his fianc Jennifer Lopez are looking at a handsome houseand land package, But to do this they have to discuss finance with therelocal financier. They need to borrow a large sum of money from the bank topay for the house.There weekly income is $1050.00 there weekly outgoing is $450.00 alsowhilst keeping in mind they cannot pay back more than 85% that they earnthat month.

Using this table they will find a plan which best suits them.Results and DataThroughout the duration of completing my Excel spreadsheet I found thefollowing information.Table 1|Financial| ||Details | ||Weekly Income |$1,050.0|| |0 ||Weekly |$450.00 ||Outgoing| ||Bank Balance |$15,000.

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|| |00||Monthly Income|$4,550.0|| |0 ||Monthly |$1,950.0||Outgoing|0 ||Max Repayment |$2,210.0|| |0 |This is the Couples Financial details. The financier has to take thisinformation into example when finding a repayment plan best for the couple.Table 2|Interest |Present Value ||Rate| ||6% |$308,473.51||9% |$245,630.

35||12%|$200,710.91||15%|$167,832.43||18%|$143,198.57|I got this information by using the PV (present Value) with the ABS(absolute) to help retrieve the right answer. The PV formula is PV (rate,nper, pmt) the rate is interest rate nper is the number of repayments andpmt is a payment made monthly.pic Questions1.$286568.

3693 / =ABS(PV(9%/12,12*20,2578.33))2.$225150.

7822 / =ABS(PV(9%/12,12*20,2025.83))3.Celeron 2.2 GHz CPU 256 MBs of Ram LCD TFT 15″ monitor Optical Mouse4.Microsoft Excel 2002Microsoft Word 2002Operating system Windows XP Professional 20025.

PV function ABS function Merging Cells Sum formula Number SequencesConclusionIn conclusion I think this spreadsheet would come in very useful to peoplewanting to find a repayment plan which best suits them. Which h is veryimportant in the repaying of the loan.

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