Crime is perceived as a social
issue in our society that affects the lives of thousands of people every year.
By tradition, the community has relied upon the judicial system and the police
to dissuade the criminals and thus, punishing the accused. Now, Crime
Prevention through Environmental Design CPTED is a concept that
affirms that the homeowners, architect, community, planners and security
professionals can play a significant role in safeguarding themselves as well as
the community from crimes by incorporating CPTED principles into the management
of physical environment (Crawford & Evans, 2017).
Prevention through Environmental Design CPTED
The concept of CPTED is relatively new
and has become a significant strategy to prevent crime that is used by law
enforcement agencies, architects, security professional, planners and the
citizens. The underlying principle of this concept is that a proper and
effective use of the built environment can reduce the occurrence of crime and
improve quality of life. The concept of CPTED purports to reduce crime
opportunities that may be inbuilt in the design or structures of the
neighborhoods (Cozens, 2016). In order to
implement the CPTED designs, it is important to understand the purpose of the
space and how appropriately does the physical design realize the goals of CPTED.
The strategies of CPTED acts as guidelines that encourage the design
professionals to resolve the urban security related problems issues.
The strategies and principles of CPTED
aims at providing solutions that are not only visually pleasant but are also of
high quality that ensures enhancement in the effective and appropriate use of
space. The following are the strategies of CPTED that aims at deterring in the
Surveillance- this is a design concept that aims at keeping the
burglars and intruders under observation. This form of CPTED design or strategy
accelerated the perspicuity of the building or property. The proper position of
lighting, windows enables the inmates as well as the observers who is concerned
about keeping a watch over the intruders, and report any inappropriate conduct
to the property owner or police. The advantage of this design is that it makes
the behavior of the offender perceptible to any passerby or police control. In
regards to visual connection established by such strategy, activity rooms such
as kitchen, sidewalks and alleys provide apparent view of common areas such as
parking or streets (Vera & Fabian, 2016).
Access Control- this approach refers to the use of elements like
fences, gates, shrubs and doors, which denies access to the crime target and
alerts the offenders that it is precarious to choose target. The primary
objective of this form of this strategy is to prevent the offender to commit
crime against the target and create a discernment of risk to such criminals.
Alarms, locks and bars are some other essential elements that act as mechanical
and physical means of access control measures.
maintenance- this CPTED approach refers to design
elements such as porches, landscaping and sidewalks that helps to differentiate
between private and public areas. It further states that the users display
signs like ‘ownership’ that sends messages to the offenders who aim at committing
crime against people (Cozens & Melenhorst, 2014).
Thus, the concept of territorial reinforcement signifies that physical design
may create a perception for the offenders about territorial influence. For
instance, landscape, low walls often define space that belongs to the residents
of the unit.
maintenance and care permits persistent use of a space for which it has been
built. The deterioration of such places signifies that the users of such site
or places are least concerned about the disorder. An appropriate way of
maintaining safeguards public health, welfare and safety in all the structures
whether it is residential, non-residential and other prevailing premises (Sohn, 2016). This is possible by establishing
standards and requirements that are acceptable. The inmates or the owners are
highly responsible to ensure care and effective maintenance.
Lighting- good lighting is one of the
most effective strategies used to prevent crimes for occurring in the
community. An appropriate way of using this strategy discourages criminal
activity and increases natural supervision opportunities resulting in less
fear. A constant level of lighting enables good visibility at night (Joyce & Armitage, 2016).
CPTED concept can be beneficial for
the urban community planners, as it would enable them to take into account
crime risks in their design process to ensure safer residential and business
areas. It further enables to develop innovative solutions that prevent the
urban communities from being subjected to crimes.
Cozens, P. (2016). Think crime! Using evidence, theory and crime prevention through
environmental design (CPTED) for planning safer cities (pp. 1-211).
Cozens, P., & Melenhorst, P. (2014). Exploring
community perceptions of crime and crime prevention through environmental
design (CPTED) in Botswana. In Proceedings
of The British Criminology Conference, Edge Hill University, Lancashire (pp.
Crawford, A., & Evans, K. (2017). Crime prevention and community safety (pp.
797-824). Oxford University Press.
Joyce, C., & Armitage, R. (2016). Crime Prevention
through Environmental Design (CPTED) and retail crime: Exploring Offender
Perspectives on Risk and Protective factors in the Design and Layout of Retail
Sohn, D. W. (2016). Residential crimes and
neighbourhood built environment: Assessing the effectiveness of crime
prevention through environmental design (CPTED). Cities, 52,
Vera, Y., & Fabian, N. (2016). Crime prevention through