Introduction: the relationship between SE & AP …


Introduction:

  Broad
overview:

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Self-esteem is how people feel about themselves and how much they like
themselves. Self-esteem is the individual’s sense of self-worth, as in how much
one matters to him or herself and to others. Self-esteem also refers to the
extent to which a person values their abilities and appreciates him or herself
(Bowker, 2006). Academic performance refers to how students deal with their
studies and how they cope with or accomplish differ tasks given to them by
teachers. It is the ability to study and remember facts and to communicate the
knowledge verbally or in paper. Academic performance indicates how well one
performs in school and college, the grades they get.

                Recent studies have shown that
there is a positive correlation between academic performance and self-esteem. Students
with high self-esteem tend to perform better in academics. High self-esteem
help the students to view themselves as capable person to promote changes
through effort and set higher goals which cause learning new things. In general,
those individuals who are neglected by the peer group members, often tend to have
a negative sense of  perception of their
self worth and self-esteem (Wentzel & Caldwell, 1997). This peer rejection
may lead to social dissatisfaction and loneliness contributing to lower feelings
of self-worth (Guay, Bolvin & Hodges, 1999) and lower academic scores. In a
school setting, self-esteem is especially vital because its development is an
underlying factor in promoting student motivation, persistence and academic
success (Tremblay, Inman, & Willms, 2000).

 

Elaborate Speak
from the overall lit. what does it talk in general about self esteem an dpther
psy variables or with academic performance with other variables. What is the
need to study about self esteem in a high school student in relation to the
academic perfeomce . Having identified the dearth in research that explored the
relationship between SE & AP … you mention 
that you idenfity as a problem and that is why  you ar studyin this

 

 

  Statement of the research problem:

                To study the relationship between
self-esteem and academic performance among high school students.

 

  Rationale of the study:

         A child’s self-esteem can have an impact on
the way they perform academically in school and also towards the social
relationships they develop with their peers of the same age/grade level. Purkey
(`1970) has identified a significant and positive relationship between a student’s
self-concept and their performance in school.  Previous research has highlighted that low
self esteem leads to low academic performance (citation). This may be due to
high pressure on students by peers and family members to perform well in their
academics than their counterparts which is most evident in an Indian society (citation).
In order to improve academic performance among the high school students it is important
to uphold their self-esteem despite various stressors they experience. Hence the
present study aims to explore the relationship between academic performance and
self-esteem.

 

 

  Significance and scope of the study:

   
          In general students
prefer competing against each other .Students who are given a special class
placement are associated with an increase in academic self-concept (Crocker
& Major, 1989). Self-esteem
maximization proposed that, to experience self-esteem maximization along with
the full development of self-worth, students need to feel these four components
(significance, competence, power and virtue) equally. With these components,
the outcome of belonging, mastery, independence and generosity together can
provide a unifying theme in promoting positive cultures for education and youth
programs (Brendtro et al., 1990).  Students are motivated to maintain the level
of performance in school that is consistent with the positive or negative judgment
of their ability. Hence knowing what students are currently functioning at
could be an effective way to prevent them from having lower expectations which
can lead to lower achievement levels (Jennell Karen, 2010). Therefore in the
present study exploring the concept of self-esteem and academic performance in
the Indian population will help the Indian counselors and education
system to use interventions strategies and help the students cope with their
academics.    ( Scope)

Review
of literature

Theoretical
framework:

Self-determination
theory (Deci & Ryan, 1995): Self-esteem could
be traced from self-determination theory (SDT) which was developed by Edward L.
Deci and Richard M. Ryan in 1995. The theory states that people have an
intrinsic motivation to explore, absorb and master his surroundings and that is
true high self-esteem. Deci and Ryan believed motivation is of two types:
Autonomous and Controlled. Autonomous motivation focuses on intrinsic
motivation in which individuals integrate the value of an activity into their
self. Whereas controlled motivation includes external as well as introjected
regulation. 

         In self-determination theory (Ryan
& Deci, 2000), distinguish between two different types of self-esteem, each
built on different grounds and each motivates differ kinds of behaviors.
Contingent self-esteem is a sense of worth that is based on the introjections
of externally defined standards. Non contingent self-esteem, in contrast refers
to a person for whom the issue self-esteem is not noticeable, largely because
they experience themselves on a fundamental level as worthy of esteem and love.
Successes and failures do not implicate their self-worth, even when they lead
to a reevaluation of actions and efforts.

           Morris Rosenberg’s (1965) Society
and the Adolescent Self-image opened a new door to psychologists and helped
bridge a disciplinary gap with his self-esteem theory and his Rosenberg Self
Esteem Scale. Rosenberg’s self-esteem theory relies on two factors: (1)
Reflected appraisals and (2) Social comparisons. Regarding reflected
appraisals, Rosenberg acknowledges that Human communication depends on seeing
matters from other people’s perspectives. Thus we become more aware bout
ourselves. Social comparisons emphasizes that self-esteem is “in part a
consequence of individuals comparing themselves with others and making Positive
or negative self-evaluations” (Hughes and Demo).

 

Review
of previous studies:

 

    
Rosli., Othman., et.al., (2011) conducted a cross sectional study to
investigate the relationship between self-esteem and academic performance among
the second year undergraduates of faculty of health sciences and faculty of
medicine.  The domains included in the
study were self-esteem, stress and body image. The sample size of the study was
220 out of which 110 were males. The scales used for the study were Rosenberg
Self Esteem Scale(RSES), Perceived stress Scale(PSS) and Body Area Satisfaction
Scale(BASS). Pearson’s correlation was used for analysis of the data. Findings
indicate that those who have high self-esteem perform better in academics. Self-esteem
score and body area satisfaction was significant at (p<.5), self-esteem and stress is inversely significant. The study concluded that self-esteem is a key factor in affecting the individual's academic performance than other contributing factors including stress and body image.                  Another research conducted investigated the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement among the pre university students. It also aimed to study the gender differences in academic achievement among 100 students in Qaemshahr schools. The findings indicate that there is a significant positive relationship between academic achievement and self-esteem. The study also indicated that is a significant difference in academic achievement between males and females. But no significant difference was fond in self-esteem between males and females. The findings suggest that high self-esteem is a predictor of academic achievement in students (Mohammed, 2010)           John; Andrew; Kyprianou; Anna (2004) explored the relationship between academic performance, self-esteem, previous performance accomplishments, self-efficacy among the postgraduate students. The sample size was 205 postgraduate students. The measures of self-esteem, self-efficacy, previous performance accomplishments were completed by the participants. The average grade of each student was used as the performance measure. The results showed that there is a significant relationship between self-efficacy and self-esteem. Multiple regressions show that self-efficacy mediated the relationship between performance accomplishments and academic performance. The results also give support to the predictive effectiveness of self-efficacy measures in academic settings.               Parvaneh Doodman (2017) intended to study the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement among the high school students. The sample size of the study was 169 male and female students in Lamerd city. Copper Smith self-esteem questionnaire was used as the instrument the semester GPA score indicated their academic achievement. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used for analysis of data. Findings suggest that there is a significant relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement. Higher self-esteem results in better academic achievement and low self-esteem results in weaker academic achievement. The findings also indicated a significant relationship between susceptibility and competence with academic achievement                 Mohammed Arshad., Zaidi., Khalid (2015) examined the relationship between self-esteem and academic performance among university students. The sample size of the study was 80 students, 40 males and 40 females. Purposive sampling technique was used for data collection from university in Faisalabad. The instruments used were Rosenberg self-esteem scale. Grades in the examination were used for assessing academic performance .Pearson's correlation was used for data analysis. The results showed significant relationship between self-esteem and academic performance. The results also found significant difference between male and female students on self-esteem and academic performance which indicate that females had high scores on academic performance as compared to male students and male students have high score on self-esteem as compared to females.                    A comprehensive literature showed that there is a positive relationship between self-esteem and academic performance across varied educational backgrounds. However, limited studies have identified the relationship between self-esteem and academic performance among students studying in India. A few studies have focused on self-esteem and academic performance among high school students in India. Based on all these limitations it is important to study how self esteem affect academic  performance.   Conceptual Framework:                  Self-esteem is defined as an attitude of self-acceptance, self-approval and self-respect (Corsini, 1999). Rosenberg (1989) described self-esteem as appositive or negative attitude towards a person's self, whereas Carl Rogers (1951) viewed the child as having two basic needs: positive regard from other people and self-worth. How we think about ourselves, our feelings of self-worth are of fundamental importance both to psychological health and to the likelihood that we can achieve goals and ambitions in life and achieve self-actualization. Rosenberg et al. (1989) viewed self-esteem as a product of social interaction dependent on reflected appraisals, social comparison, and self-attribution.             Academic performance is the outcome of education- the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals. It is commonly measured by examinations or continuous assessment but there is no general agreement on how it is best tested or which aspects are most important. Procedural knowledge such as skills and declarative knowledge such as facts. Academic performance represents performance outcomes that indicate the extent to which a person has accomplished specific goals that were the focus of activities in instructional environments, specifically in schools and colleges. School and college systems mostly define cognitive goals that either apply across multiple subject areas (e.g., critical thinking) or include the acquisition of knowledge and understanding in a specific intellectual domain (e.g., numeracy, literacy, science, history). Therefore academic performance should be considered to be a multifaceted construct that comprises different domains of learning.   Research gap:     Most of the studies focused on university students (Mohammed Arshad., Zaidi., Khalid 2015). Some of the studies were limited to foreign cultures and focused on school students in general (Mohammed, 2010). Limited studies have been published on high school students in Karnataka. There are limited published research studies on Indian population. Thus, the present study will aid to explore how self-esteem impacts on  academic performance among high school students.   Research questions: 1.      Is there a relationship between self-esteem and academic performance among high school students? 2.      Are there any gender differences in self-esteem and academic performance among high school students? Aim:     To study the relationship between self-esteem and academic performance among the high school students in Bangalore. Specific objectives: ·         To study the relationship between self-esteem and academic performance among high school students. ·         To study the gender differences in self-esteem and academic performance among high school students.  Research Hypothesis: ·         There is a positive significant relationship between self-esteem and academic performance. ·         There are no gender differences in self-esteem and academic performance.  Methodology Research design: The research design employed for the present study was non experimental correlational research design. The correlational design is one in which the data is collected from the same group of sample for two different variables so that the relationship between the two subsequent sets of data can be determined. Variables: Independent variables: ·         Self esteem ·         Gender- male and female Dependent variables: ·         Academic Performance       Operational definition: ·         Self-esteem: Rosenberg (1989) described self-esteem as appositive or negative attitude towards a person's self. ·         Academic Performance: Academic Performance refers to the overall aggregate percentage of marks obtained in the previous final examination. ·         High school students: In the present study students studying in class 8th, 9th and 10th standard are considered as high school students according to the State Board of Karnataka.   Sample          Sample description:           The population in the present study comprised of High school students (8th, 9th, 10th grade) of State Board of Karnataka. The sample was selected from various schools in Bangalore. The chosen sample fall between the ranges of 13to 15years. It was ascertained that an equal number of males and females were approached for the study.      Sampling size:       The data will be collected from a total 100 students (50 Males and 50 females).     Sampling method:      The sampling method employed in the present study was convenience sampling method. It is a type of non-probability sampling that involves the sample being drawn from the population that is easily accessible Inclusion & Exclusion Criteria: Inclusion: 1.      The students from the State board of Karnataka studying in 8th, 9th and 10th standard in Bangalore are included for the research. 2.      Schools having 750 to 1000 students are included in the research. Exclusion: 1.      The students from other Boards like CBSE and ICSE are excluded from the study. 2.       The schools having more than 1000 students are excluded from the study. 3.      Participants who do not show a copy of the marks card. 4.      Participants who are physically challenged and mentally disabled. 5.      Detained students are also excluded from the study   Tools for data collection: 1.      Socio Demographic Sheet: the researcher developed a socio demographic data sheet that consisted of details regarding the individuals initials, age, gender, name of the school, Standard, annual income, place of living. 2.      Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale: the scale was developed by Dr. Morris Rosenberg (1965). The scale consists of 10 items. All items are answered using a 4 point Likert scale ranging from strongly agrees to strongly disagree, items 2, 5, 6 and 9 are scored in reverse order. The reliability coefficient was determined by internal consistency which ranges from .77 to .85 and the test re-test reliability ranges from .82 to .85. 1.      Academic Performance- Academic performance as indicated by the overall aggregate marks obtained by the student in the previous academic year.       Procedure for data collection:       Necessary permission will be obtained from the school authorities for computing the student's marks of the academic year. The data shall be collected by using the paper pencil test. Inform consent and socio demographic sheet will be given to the participants. Brief introduction will be given about the nature of the study and the instructions will be given. For the marks sheet of the participants, informed consent from the school will be taken and their aggregate percentage will be taken into account for measuring academic performance. The scores will be calculated and analyzed using the SPSS VERSION 2.0.     Procedure for data analysis:      The data will be collected using the paper pencil test. Based on the results, the data was further analyzed using the Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) version 2.0. The SPSS analysis used for the data is Pearson's product moment Correlation is a measure of the strength of the linear relationship between two variables. Independent sample t test is a parametric test used to compare the two independent group in order to determine whether there is statistical evidence that the associated population means are significantly different.     Ethical consideration: ·         Informed consent form will be taken from both the school and the students for the administration of the questionnaire and for the use of their marks sheet. The informed consent sheet involved researcher's academic details along with the aim and the purpose of the study. ·         Confidentiality and privacy of the participants involved in the study and their data will be maintained and preserved. ·         The results obtained will be used strictly for academic purpose ·         Participants are not forced in any manner and are given the option to withdraw at any point of time of the research.     References:     Bowker,A.(2006). The relationship between sports participation and self-esteem during adolescence. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Sceince,22(3), 214-229. Bryman, A.(2014).Social research methods.(4ed).Oxford university Press Deci,E.L& Ryan, R. M. (2000).The "what" and the "why" of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry,11,227-268. Doodman P, Zadeh MA, Changizi B (2017). Study the Relationship between Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement among High School Students in Lamerd City. Intranational Jounal of Scientific Studies; Volume 5(3):221-226. Joshi, S. & Srivastava, R. (2009). Self-esteem and Academic Achievement of Adolescents. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, Vol. 35, Special Issue, 33-39. Lane. John; Andrew.M; Kyprianou; Anna (2004).Self efficacy, Self esteem and their impact on academic performance. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, Volume 32, 247-256(10) Mohammad, A. (2010). Relationship Between Self-esteem and Academic Achievement Amongst Pre-University Students. Journal of Applied Sciences 12/2010; DOI: 10.3923/jas.2010.2474.2477 Muhammed Arshad., Imran Zaidi., Khalid.(2015). Self Esteem & Academic Performance among University Students. Jounal of Education and Practice. Volu,me 6,pp.156-162(1) Rosenberg, Morris. 1965. Society and the Adolescent Self-Image. Princeton, NJ:Princeton University Press.  Rosli, Y., Othman, H., Ishak, I., Lubis, S. H., Saat, N. Z. M. & Omar, B. (2011). Self-esteem and Academic Performance Relationship Amongst the Second Year Undergraduate Students of University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur Campus. University Kebangsaan Malaysia Teaching and Learning Congress 2011, Volume II, MALAYSIA.

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