Introduction: Broadoverview: Self-esteem is how people feel about themselves and how much they likethemselves.
Self-esteem is the individual’s sense of self-worth, as in how muchone matters to him or herself and to others. Self-esteem also refers to theextent to which a person values their abilities and appreciates him or herself(Bowker, 2006). Academic performance refers to how students deal with theirstudies and how they cope with or accomplish differ tasks given to them byteachers.
It is the ability to study and remember facts and to communicate theknowledge verbally or in paper. Academic performance indicates how well oneperforms in school and college, the grades they get. Recent studies have shown thatthere is a positive correlation between academic performance and self-esteem. Studentswith high self-esteem tend to perform better in academics. High self-esteemhelp the students to view themselves as capable person to promote changesthrough effort and set higher goals which cause learning new things. In general,those individuals who are neglected by the peer group members, often tend to havea negative sense of perception of theirself worth and self-esteem (Wentzel & Caldwell, 1997). This peer rejectionmay lead to social dissatisfaction and loneliness contributing to lower feelingsof self-worth (Guay, Bolvin & Hodges, 1999) and lower academic scores.
In aschool setting, self-esteem is especially vital because its development is anunderlying factor in promoting student motivation, persistence and academicsuccess (Tremblay, Inman, & Willms, 2000). Elaborate Speakfrom the overall lit. what does it talk in general about self esteem an dptherpsy variables or with academic performance with other variables. What is theneed to study about self esteem in a high school student in relation to theacademic perfeomce .
Having identified the dearth in research that explored therelationship between SE & AP … you mention that you idenfity as a problem and that is why you ar studyin this Statement of the research problem: To study the relationship betweenself-esteem and academic performance among high school students. Rationale of the study: A child’s self-esteem can have an impact onthe way they perform academically in school and also towards the socialrelationships they develop with their peers of the same age/grade level. Purkey(`1970) has identified a significant and positive relationship between a student’sself-concept and their performance in school. Previous research has highlighted that lowself esteem leads to low academic performance (citation).
This may be due tohigh pressure on students by peers and family members to perform well in theiracademics than their counterparts which is most evident in an Indian society (citation).In order to improve academic performance among the high school students it is importantto uphold their self-esteem despite various stressors they experience. Hence thepresent study aims to explore the relationship between academic performance andself-esteem. Significance and scope of the study: In general studentsprefer competing against each other .Students who are given a special classplacement are associated with an increase in academic self-concept (Crocker& Major, 1989). Self-esteemmaximization proposed that, to experience self-esteem maximization along withthe full development of self-worth, students need to feel these four components(significance, competence, power and virtue) equally. With these components,the outcome of belonging, mastery, independence and generosity together canprovide a unifying theme in promoting positive cultures for education and youthprograms (Brendtro et al.
, 1990). Students are motivated to maintain the levelof performance in school that is consistent with the positive or negative judgmentof their ability. Hence knowing what students are currently functioning atcould be an effective way to prevent them from having lower expectations whichcan lead to lower achievement levels (Jennell Karen, 2010). Therefore in thepresent study exploring the concept of self-esteem and academic performance inthe Indian population will help the Indian counselors and educationsystem to use interventions strategies and help the students cope with theiracademics. ( Scope)Reviewof literatureTheoreticalframework:Self-determinationtheory (Deci & Ryan, 1995): Self-esteem couldbe traced from self-determination theory (SDT) which was developed by Edward L.
Deci and Richard M. Ryan in 1995. The theory states that people have anintrinsic motivation to explore, absorb and master his surroundings and that istrue high self-esteem. Deci and Ryan believed motivation is of two types:Autonomous and Controlled. Autonomous motivation focuses on intrinsicmotivation in which individuals integrate the value of an activity into theirself. Whereas controlled motivation includes external as well as introjectedregulation. In self-determination theory (Ryan& Deci, 2000), distinguish between two different types of self-esteem, eachbuilt on different grounds and each motivates differ kinds of behaviors.Contingent self-esteem is a sense of worth that is based on the introjectionsof externally defined standards.
Non contingent self-esteem, in contrast refersto a person for whom the issue self-esteem is not noticeable, largely becausethey experience themselves on a fundamental level as worthy of esteem and love.Successes and failures do not implicate their self-worth, even when they leadto a reevaluation of actions and efforts. Morris Rosenberg’s (1965) Societyand the Adolescent Self-image opened a new door to psychologists and helpedbridge a disciplinary gap with his self-esteem theory and his Rosenberg SelfEsteem Scale. Rosenberg’s self-esteem theory relies on two factors: (1)Reflected appraisals and (2) Social comparisons. Regarding reflectedappraisals, Rosenberg acknowledges that Human communication depends on seeingmatters from other people’s perspectives. Thus we become more aware boutourselves. Social comparisons emphasizes that self-esteem is “in part aconsequence of individuals comparing themselves with others and making Positiveor negative self-evaluations” (Hughes and Demo).
Reviewof previous studies: Rosli., Othman., et.al., (2011) conducted a cross sectional study toinvestigate the relationship between self-esteem and academic performance amongthe second year undergraduates of faculty of health sciences and faculty ofmedicine. The domains included in thestudy were self-esteem, stress and body image.
The sample size of the study was220 out of which 110 were males. The scales used for the study were RosenbergSelf Esteem Scale(RSES), Perceived stress Scale(PSS) and Body Area SatisfactionScale(BASS). Pearson’s correlation was used for analysis of the data.
Findingsindicate that those who have high self-esteem perform better in academics. Self-esteemscore and body area satisfaction was significant at (p<.5), self-esteem and stressis inversely significant. The study concluded that self-esteem is a key factorin affecting the individual's academic performance than other contributingfactors including stress and body image. Anotherresearch conducted investigated the relationship between self-esteem andacademic achievement among the pre university students.
It also aimed to studythe gender differences in academic achievement among 100 students in Qaemshahrschools. The findings indicate that there is a significant positiverelationship between academic achievement and self-esteem. The study alsoindicated that is a significant difference in academic achievement betweenmales and females. But no significant difference was fond in self-esteembetween males and females. The findings suggest that high self-esteem is apredictor of academic achievement in students (Mohammed, 2010) John;Andrew; Kyprianou; Anna (2004) explored the relationship between academicperformance, self-esteem, previous performance accomplishments, self-efficacyamong the postgraduate students. The sample size was 205 postgraduate students.The measures of self-esteem, self-efficacy, previous performanceaccomplishments were completed by the participants.
The average grade of eachstudent was used as the performance measure. The results showed that there is asignificant relationship between self-efficacy and self-esteem. Multiple regressionsshow that self-efficacy mediated the relationship between performanceaccomplishments and academic performance. The results also give support to thepredictive effectiveness of self-efficacy measures in academic settings.
Parvaneh Doodman (2017) intended to study therelationship between self-esteem and academic achievement among the high schoolstudents. The sample size of the study was 169 male and female students inLamerd city. Copper Smith self-esteem questionnaire was used as the instrumentthe semester GPA score indicated their academic achievement. Pearson’scorrelation coefficient was used for analysis of data. Findings suggest thatthere is a significant relationship between self-esteem and academicachievement. Higher self-esteem results in better academic achievement and low self-esteemresults in weaker academic achievement. The findings also indicated asignificant relationship between susceptibility and competence with academicachievement Mohammed Arshad., Zaidi.
, Khalid (2015) examinedthe relationship between self-esteem and academic performance among universitystudents. The sample size of the study was 80 students, 40 males and 40females. Purposive sampling technique was used for data collection fromuniversity in Faisalabad. The instruments used were Rosenberg self-esteemscale. Grades in the examination were used for assessing academic performance .Pearson’scorrelation was used for data analysis. The results showed significantrelationship between self-esteem and academic performance. The results alsofound significant difference between male and female students on self-esteemand academic performance which indicate that females had high scores onacademic performance as compared to male students and male students have highscore on self-esteem as compared to females.
A comprehensive literature showed that thereis a positive relationship between self-esteem and academic performance acrossvaried educational backgrounds. However, limited studies have identified therelationship between self-esteem and academic performance among studentsstudying in India. A few studies have focused on self-esteem and academicperformance among high school students in India. Based on all these limitationsit is important to study how self esteem affect academic performance. ConceptualFramework: Self-esteem is defined as anattitude of self-acceptance, self-approval and self-respect (Corsini, 1999).Rosenberg (1989) described self-esteem as appositive or negative attitudetowards a person’s self, whereas Carl Rogers (1951) viewed the child as havingtwo basic needs: positive regard from other people and self-worth.
How we thinkabout ourselves, our feelings of self-worth are of fundamental importance bothto psychological health and to the likelihood that we can achieve goals andambitions in life and achieve self-actualization. Rosenberg et al. (1989)viewed self-esteem as a product of social interaction dependent on reflectedappraisals, social comparison, and self-attribution.
Academic performance is the outcome of education- the extent to which a student, teacher orinstitution has achieved their educational goals. It is commonly measured byexaminations or continuous assessment but there is no general agreement on howit is best tested or which aspects are most important. Procedural knowledgesuch as skills and declarative knowledge such as facts. Academic performancerepresents performance outcomes that indicate the extent to which a person hasaccomplished specific goals that were the focus of activities in instructionalenvironments, specifically in schools and colleges. School and college systemsmostly define cognitive goals that either apply across multiple subject areas(e.g., critical thinking) or include the acquisition of knowledge and understandingin a specific intellectual domain (e.g.
, numeracy, literacy, science, history).Therefore academic performance should be considered to be a multifacetedconstruct that comprises different domains of learning. Researchgap: Most of the studies focused on universitystudents (Mohammed Arshad., Zaidi., Khalid2015).
Some of the studies were limited to foreign cultures and focused onschool students in general (Mohammed, 2010). Limited studies have beenpublished on high school students in Karnataka. There are limited publishedresearch studies on Indian population. Thus, the present study will aid toexplore how self-esteem impacts on academicperformance among high school students. Researchquestions:1. Isthere a relationship between self-esteem and academic performance among highschool students?2.
Arethere any gender differences in self-esteem and academic performance among highschool students?Aim: To study the relationship between self-esteem and academic performanceamong the high school students in Bangalore.Specificobjectives:· To study the relationship between self-esteemand academic performance among high school students.· To study the gender differences inself-esteem and academic performance among high school students. Research Hypothesis:· There is a positive significant relationshipbetween self-esteem and academic performance.· There are no gender differences inself-esteem and academic performance. MethodologyResearchdesign:The research design employed forthe present study was non experimental correlational research design. Thecorrelational design is one in which the data is collected from the same groupof sample for two different variables so that the relationship between the twosubsequent sets of data can be determined.Variables:Independentvariables:· Self esteem· Gender- male and femaleDependentvariables:· Academic Performance Operational definition:· Self-esteem:Rosenberg(1989) described self-esteem as appositive or negative attitude towards aperson’s self.
· AcademicPerformance: Academic Performance refers to theoverall aggregate percentage of marks obtained in the previous finalexamination.· Highschool students: In the present study students studyingin class 8th, 9th and 10th standard areconsidered as high school students according to the StateBoard of Karnataka. Sample Sample description: The population in the present studycomprised of High school students (8th, 9th, 10thgrade) of State Board of Karnataka. The sample was selected from variousschools in Bangalore. The chosen sample fall between the ranges of 13to 15years.It was ascertained that an equal number of males and females were approachedfor the study.
Sampling size: Thedata will be collected from a total 100 students (50 Males and 50 females). Sampling method: The sampling method employed in the present study was conveniencesampling method. It is a type of non-probability sampling that involves thesample being drawn from the population that is easily accessible Inclusion& Exclusion Criteria:Inclusion:1. Thestudents from the State board of Karnataka studying in 8th, 9thand 10th standard in Bangalore are included for the research.2.
Schoolshaving 750 to 1000 students are included in the research.Exclusion:1. Thestudents from other Boards like CBSE and ICSE are excluded from the study.2. The schools having more than 1000 students areexcluded from the study.
3. Participantswho do not show a copy of the marks card.4. Participantswho are physically challenged and mentally disabled.5. Detainedstudents are also excluded from the study Tools for data collection:1. Socio Demographic Sheet:the researcher developed a socio demographic data sheet that consisted ofdetails regarding the individuals initials, age, gender, name of the school, Standard,annual income, place of living.
2. Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale:the scale was developed by Dr. Morris Rosenberg (1965). The scale consists of10 items. All items are answered using a 4 point Likert scale ranging fromstrongly agrees to strongly disagree, items 2, 5, 6 and 9 are scored in reverseorder. The reliability coefficient was determined by internal consistency whichranges from .77 to .
85 and the test re-test reliability ranges from .82 to .85.1.
Academic Performance-Academic performance as indicated by the overall aggregate marks obtained bythe student in the previous academic year. Procedure for data collection: Necessary permission will beobtained from the school authorities for computing the student’s marks of theacademic year. The data shall be collected by using the paper pencil test.Inform consent and socio demographic sheet will be given to the participants.Brief introduction will be given about the nature of the study and theinstructions will be given.
For the marks sheet of the participants, informedconsent from the school will be taken and their aggregate percentage will betaken into account for measuring academic performance. The scores will becalculated and analyzed using the SPSS VERSION 2.0. Procedure for data analysis: The data will be collected using the paper pencil test. Based on theresults, the data was further analyzed using the Statistical Package of SocialScience (SPSS) version 2.0. The SPSS analysis used for the data is Pearson’s productmoment Correlation is a measure of the strength of the linear relationshipbetween two variables. Independent sample t test is a parametric test used tocompare the two independent group in order to determine whether there isstatistical evidence that the associated population means are significantlydifferent.
Ethical consideration:· Informed consent form will be taken fromboth the school and the students for the administration of the questionnaireand for the use of their marks sheet. The informed consent sheet involvedresearcher’s academic details along with the aim and the purpose of the study.· Confidentiality and privacy of theparticipants involved in the study and their data will be maintained andpreserved.
· The results obtained will be usedstrictly for academic purpose· Participants are not forced in anymanner and are given the option to withdraw at any point of time of theresearch. References: Bowker,A.(2006).The relationship between sports participation and self-esteem duringadolescence. Canadian Journal ofBehavioral Sceince,22(3), 214-229.Bryman,A.(2014).Social research methods.
(4ed).Oxforduniversity PressDeci,E.L, R. M. (2000).The “what” and the “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs andthe self determination of behavior. PsychologicalInquiry,11,227-268.
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