Introduction: the relationship between SE & AP …



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Self-esteem is how people feel about themselves and how much they like
themselves. Self-esteem is the individual’s sense of self-worth, as in how much
one matters to him or herself and to others. Self-esteem also refers to the
extent to which a person values their abilities and appreciates him or herself
(Bowker, 2006). Academic performance refers to how students deal with their
studies and how they cope with or accomplish differ tasks given to them by
teachers. It is the ability to study and remember facts and to communicate the
knowledge verbally or in paper. Academic performance indicates how well one
performs in school and college, the grades they get.

                Recent studies have shown that
there is a positive correlation between academic performance and self-esteem. Students
with high self-esteem tend to perform better in academics. High self-esteem
help the students to view themselves as capable person to promote changes
through effort and set higher goals which cause learning new things. In general,
those individuals who are neglected by the peer group members, often tend to have
a negative sense of  perception of their
self worth and self-esteem (Wentzel & Caldwell, 1997). This peer rejection
may lead to social dissatisfaction and loneliness contributing to lower feelings
of self-worth (Guay, Bolvin & Hodges, 1999) and lower academic scores. In a
school setting, self-esteem is especially vital because its development is an
underlying factor in promoting student motivation, persistence and academic
success (Tremblay, Inman, & Willms, 2000).


Elaborate Speak
from the overall lit. what does it talk in general about self esteem an dpther
psy variables or with academic performance with other variables. What is the
need to study about self esteem in a high school student in relation to the
academic perfeomce . Having identified the dearth in research that explored the
relationship between SE & AP … you mention 
that you idenfity as a problem and that is why  you ar studyin this



  Statement of the research problem:

                To study the relationship between
self-esteem and academic performance among high school students.


  Rationale of the study:

         A child’s self-esteem can have an impact on
the way they perform academically in school and also towards the social
relationships they develop with their peers of the same age/grade level. Purkey
(`1970) has identified a significant and positive relationship between a student’s
self-concept and their performance in school.  Previous research has highlighted that low
self esteem leads to low academic performance (citation). This may be due to
high pressure on students by peers and family members to perform well in their
academics than their counterparts which is most evident in an Indian society (citation).
In order to improve academic performance among the high school students it is important
to uphold their self-esteem despite various stressors they experience. Hence the
present study aims to explore the relationship between academic performance and



  Significance and scope of the study:

          In general students
prefer competing against each other .Students who are given a special class
placement are associated with an increase in academic self-concept (Crocker
& Major, 1989). Self-esteem
maximization proposed that, to experience self-esteem maximization along with
the full development of self-worth, students need to feel these four components
(significance, competence, power and virtue) equally. With these components,
the outcome of belonging, mastery, independence and generosity together can
provide a unifying theme in promoting positive cultures for education and youth
programs (Brendtro et al., 1990).  Students are motivated to maintain the level
of performance in school that is consistent with the positive or negative judgment
of their ability. Hence knowing what students are currently functioning at
could be an effective way to prevent them from having lower expectations which
can lead to lower achievement levels (Jennell Karen, 2010). Therefore in the
present study exploring the concept of self-esteem and academic performance in
the Indian population will help the Indian counselors and education
system to use interventions strategies and help the students cope with their
academics.    ( Scope)

of literature


theory (Deci & Ryan, 1995): Self-esteem could
be traced from self-determination theory (SDT) which was developed by Edward L.
Deci and Richard M. Ryan in 1995. The theory states that people have an
intrinsic motivation to explore, absorb and master his surroundings and that is
true high self-esteem. Deci and Ryan believed motivation is of two types:
Autonomous and Controlled. Autonomous motivation focuses on intrinsic
motivation in which individuals integrate the value of an activity into their
self. Whereas controlled motivation includes external as well as introjected

         In self-determination theory (Ryan
& Deci, 2000), distinguish between two different types of self-esteem, each
built on different grounds and each motivates differ kinds of behaviors.
Contingent self-esteem is a sense of worth that is based on the introjections
of externally defined standards. Non contingent self-esteem, in contrast refers
to a person for whom the issue self-esteem is not noticeable, largely because
they experience themselves on a fundamental level as worthy of esteem and love.
Successes and failures do not implicate their self-worth, even when they lead
to a reevaluation of actions and efforts.

           Morris Rosenberg’s (1965) Society
and the Adolescent Self-image opened a new door to psychologists and helped
bridge a disciplinary gap with his self-esteem theory and his Rosenberg Self
Esteem Scale. Rosenberg’s self-esteem theory relies on two factors: (1)
Reflected appraisals and (2) Social comparisons. Regarding reflected
appraisals, Rosenberg acknowledges that Human communication depends on seeing
matters from other people’s perspectives. Thus we become more aware bout
ourselves. Social comparisons emphasizes that self-esteem is “in part a
consequence of individuals comparing themselves with others and making Positive
or negative self-evaluations” (Hughes and Demo).


of previous studies:


Rosli., Othman.,, (2011) conducted a cross sectional study to
investigate the relationship between self-esteem and academic performance among
the second year undergraduates of faculty of health sciences and faculty of
medicine.  The domains included in the
study were self-esteem, stress and body image. The sample size of the study was
220 out of which 110 were males. The scales used for the study were Rosenberg
Self Esteem Scale(RSES), Perceived stress Scale(PSS) and Body Area Satisfaction
Scale(BASS). Pearson’s correlation was used for analysis of the data. Findings
indicate that those who have high self-esteem perform better in academics. Self-esteem
score and body area satisfaction was significant at (p<.5 self-esteem and stress is inversely significant. the study concluded that a key factor in affecting individual academic performance than other contributing factors including body image. research conducted investigated relationship between achievement among pre university students. it also aimed to gender differences students qaemshahr schools. findings indicate there significant positive self-esteem. indicated difference males females. but no was fond suggest high predictor of andrew kyprianou anna explored previous accomplishments self-efficacy postgraduate sample size measures were completed by participants. average grade each student used as measure. results showed multiple regressions show mediated performance. give support predictive effectiveness settings. doodman intended school male female lamerd city. copper smith questionnaire instrument semester gpa score their achievement. pearson correlation coefficient for analysis data. higher better low weaker susceptibility competence with mohammed arshad. zaidi. khalid examined purposive sampling technique data collection from faisalabad. instruments rosenberg scale. grades examination assessing .pearson analysis. found on which females had scores compared have comprehensive literature across varied educational backgrounds. however limited studies identified studying india. few focused based all these limitations important how self esteem affect conceptual framework: defined an attitude self-acceptance self-approval self-respect described appositive or negative towards person whereas carl rogers viewed child having two basic needs: regard people self-worth. we think about ourselves our feelings self-worth are fundamental importance both psychological health likelihood can achieve goals ambitions life self-actualization. et al. product social interaction dependent reflected appraisals comparison self-attribution. outcome education- extent teacher institution has achieved goals. commonly measured examinations continuous assessment general agreement best tested aspects most important. procedural knowledge such skills declarative facts. represents outcomes accomplished specific focus activities instructional environments specifically schools colleges. college systems mostly define cognitive either apply subject areas critical thinking include acquisition understanding intellectual domain numeracy literacy science history therefore should be considered multifaceted construct comprises different domains learning. gap: some foreign cultures been published karnataka. indian population. thus present will aid explore impacts questions: any aim: bangalore. objectives: hypothesis: design: design employed non experimental correlational design. one collected same group variables so subsequent sets determined. variables: independent gender- operational definition: self-esteem: self. performance: refers overall aggregate percentage marks obtained final examination. students: class standard according state board description: population comprised selected various chosen fall ranges ascertained equal number approached study. size: total method: method convenience method. type non-probability involves being drawn easily accessible inclusion exclusion criteria: inclusion: karnataka bangalore included research. exclusion: boards like cbse icse excluded more participants who do not copy card. physically challenged mentally disabled. detained tools collection: socio demographic sheet: researcher developed sheet consisted details regarding individuals initials age name annual income place living. scale: scale dr. morris consists items. items answered using point likert ranging strongly agrees disagree scored reverse order. reliability determined internal consistency .77 .85 test re-test .82 .85. performance- year. procedure permission authorities computing shall paper pencil test. inform consent given brief introduction nature instructions given. informed taken into account measuring calculated analyzed spss version analysis: further statistical package moment measure strength linear variables. t parametric compare order determine whether evidence associated means significantly different. ethical consideration: form administration use sheet. involved along aim purpose confidentiality privacy maintained preserved. strictly forced manner option withdraw at time references: bowker sports participation during adolescence. canadian journal behavioral sceince bryman a. methods. press deci ryan r. m. goal pursuits: human needs determination behavior. inquiry p zadeh ma changizi b intranational jounal scientific volume joshi s. srivastava adolescents. academy applied psychology vol. special issue lane. john andrew.m efficacy impact behavior personality: international mohammad amongst pre-university sciences doi: muhammed imran khalid. education practice. volu morris. society adolescent self-image. princeton nj:princeton press. y. othman h. ishak i. lubis saat n. z. omar b. second year undergraduate kebangsaan malaysia kuala lumpur campus. teaching learning congress ii malaysia.>


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