IntroductionDiagnostic method plays a vital role in research design and givesa clear and exact view of area of study. While performing social research,diagnostic research comes in existence mostly.
The experimentalmethod is a systematic and scientific approach to research in which theresearcher manipulates one or more variables, and controls and measures anychange in other variables. Evaluate research is to evaluate the impact ofsocial interventions such as new treatment methods, innovations in services,and a host of others. Diagnostic methodThe researcher must be able to define clearly, what he wants tomeasure and must find adequate methods for measuring it along with a clear cutdefinition of population he wants to study. Process orMethods of Diagnostic researchstudies· Formulating the objective ofthe study.
· Designing the methods of data collection.· Selecting the sample.· Collecting the data.· Processing and analyzing the data.· Reporting the findings. It plays a vital role inresearch design and gives a clear and exact view of area of study.
While performing social research,diagnostic research comes in existence mostly Experimentalmethodso The word experimental research has arange of definitions.o The experimental method is a systematicand scientific approach to research in which the researcher manipulates one ormore variables, and controls and measures any change in other variables.o In the strict sense, experimentalresearch is what we call a true experiment.o This is an experiment where theresearcher manipulates one variable, and control/ randomizes the rest of thevariables. It has a control group, the subjects have been randomly assignedbetween the groups and the researcher only tests one effect at a time.Steps Involved InConducting an Experimental Study1. Identify and define the research problemAfterdeciding the topic of interest, the researcher tries to define the researchproblem. This helps the researcher to focus on a narrow research area to beable to study it appropriately.
Defining the research problem helps you toformulate a research hypothesis.2. Review relevant literatureo In the research process, the literaturereview stands as the pivotal point of all activities.o This literature review helps researcherweather the topic is worth studying and it provide inside into ways in whichthe researcher can limit the scope to a needed area of inquiry.3.
Formulate hypothesis and deduce theirconsequenceso It is almost impossible for a researchernot to have any hypothesis or objectives before proceeding with his works.Because a hypothesis or the objective shows the direction to a researcher.o That is why, in the experimentalresearch the research design is built around a tentative hypothesis or clearlydefined objectives.4.
Construct an experimental designItrepresents all the elements, conditions, and relations of the followingconsequences:o Select sample of subjectso Identify and control non experimentalfactorso Select or construct, and validateinstruments to measure outcomeso Conducts pilot studyDetermineplace, time, and duration of the experiment 5. Conduct the experimento An experiment is typically carried outby manipulating a variable, called the independent variable, affecting theexperimental group. The effect that the researcher is interested in, thedependent variables, is measured.o Identifying and controlling nonexperimental factors which the researcher does not want to influence theeffects, is crucial to drawing a valid conclusion. This is often done bycontrolling variables, if possible, or randomizing variables to minimizeeffects that can be traced back to third variables.
Researchers only want tomeasure the effect of the independent variables when conducting an experiment,allowing them to conclude that this was the reason for the effect.6. Compile raw data and condense to usableformo When the experiment is impose to aspecific variable, related data should be collected and compiled in systematicwayo After analyzing compiled data it shouldbe condensed to a usable form Evaluative research Evaluation research, sometimes called program evaluation, refers to a research purpose rather than a specific method. This purpose is to evaluate the impact of social interventions such as new treatment methods, innovations in services, and a host of others. Evaluation research is a form of applied research—it is intended to have some real-world effect. Many methods, like surveys and experiments can be used in evaluation research. In recent years, the field of evaluation research has become an increasingly popular and active research specialty, as reflected in textbooks, courses, and projects.
Evaluative research seeks to assess or judge in some way, providing useful information about something other than might be gleaned in mere observation or investigation of relationships. Types of evaluation Summative evaluation Summative evaluation seeks to understand the outcomes or effects of something, for example where a test in of children in school is used to assess the effectiveness of teaching or the deployment of a curriculum. The children in this case are not direct beneficiaries – they are simply objects that contain information that needs to be extracted. Summative evaluations can assess such as: · Finance: Effect in terms of cost, savings, profit and so on. · Impact: Broad effect, both positive and negative, including depth, spread and time effects. · Outcomes: Whether desired or unwanted effects are achieved.
· Secondary analysis: Analysis of existing data to derive additional information. · Meta-analysis: Integrating results of multiple studies. Formative evaluation Formative evaluation is used to help strengthen or improve the person or thing being tested. For example where a test of children in school is used to shape teaching methods that will result in optimal learning. Formative evaluations can assess such as: · Implementation: Monitoring success of a process or project. · Needs: Looking at such as type and level of need.
· Potential: The ability of using information for formative purpose. ProcessEvaluation Process evaluation determines if specific program strategies were implemented as planned. It focuses on program implementation. It is used to determine why an established program has changed over time. For example, Did your program meet its goals for recruitment of program participants? Or Did participants receive the specified number of service hours? To address inefficiencies in program delivery of services To accurately portray to outside parties program operations (e.g., for replication elsewhere)Outcomes EvaluationOutcomes evaluation focuses on the changes incomprehension, attitudes, behaviors, and practices that result from programsactivities.
It can include both short and long term results. For example, didyour participants report the desired changes after completing a programcycle? Or what are the short or long term results observed among (orreported by) participants? Can include both short and long term results To decide whether program/activity affect participants outcomes To establish and measure clear benefits of the programImpact EvaluationImpact evaluation focuses on long term, sustained changesas a result of the program activities, both positive/negative and intended/unintended.For example, what changes in your program participants’ behaviors areattributable to your program? Or what effects would program participantsmiss out on without this program? To influence policy To see impact in longitudinal studies with comparison groupsSteps in evaluationStep 1: Engage theStakeholders Step 2: Describe theProgram Step 3: Focus theEvaluation Design Step 4: Gather CredibleEvidenceStep 5: JustifyConclusions Step 6: Ensure Use& Share Lessons CONCLUSIONIn diagnostic method the researcher must be able to defineclearly, what he wants to measure and must find adequate methods for measuringit along with a clear cut definition of population he wants to study. Experimentmethod is an experiment where the researcher manipulates one variable, andcontrol/ randomizes the rest of the variables.
Evaluative research seeks to assess or judge in some way,providing useful information about something other than might be gleaned inmere observation or investigation of relationships.