India, is known for its
culinary delights. A country known for its sugary snacks is soon making its way
to a healthy lifestyle. With a young and tech savvy population,consumers are
emerging as a health conscious population.Labeling is defining in the Federal
Food, Drug and Cosmic Act (FFDCA) in the US as a written, printed or graphic
matter upon any article or any of its containers or wrappers. Labeling is a
subset of packaging. Sellers need to label their products.The label may be a
simple tag attached to the product or an elaborately designed graphic which is
a part of the package.
consumers to eat healthy is no trivial task. As health is valued by everybody
and thus, is one of the essential drivers of human behaviour, attempts to
change eating habbits by informing consumers about the link between diet and
health have been difficult. One of the important tools in trying to bring about
more healthy eating patterns has been nutrition labelling.
Nutritional labeling is
found to affect the purchase behavior significantly. Some evidence reveals the
provision of nutrition information may allow consumers to switch consumption
away from unhealthy food products in those food categories toward healthy
products in food categories easily. Improvements
intake of the population depend on the interaction of demand
and supply forces in the food markets. . On the
demand side consumers’ interest in the purchase of diets and products
with improved nutritional profiles has a direct effect on nutrient intake.
Nutritional labels can
simplify the whole concept of healthy eating. It helps to keep track of the amount of fat
and sugar, sodium and fiber, protein and carbohydrates. It also allows
consumers to make an informed judgement of a product’s overall value (APO,
2002). Therefore, the nutritional panel
is a guide to a better diet and a healthier life (FDA, 1998). Consumers can use
the nutritional label to make food choices according to the Dietary Guidelines
developed by health experts who emphasize the importance of a well-balanced diet.
Each pack of the food are
required to be marked with the following information:
a. Name of the product and
trademark if any
b. Name and address of the
c. Batch or code number
d. Net quantity
e. Date of manufacture
f. List of ingredients
g. Nutritional Claim
h. Permitted Additives
j. Best before date
k. Green dot marking for
Marketers use labeling to
their products to bring identification. This kind of labeling helps a viewer to
differentiate the product from the rest in the shelves of the market. There are
several used of the label for the products in the market.
Labeling is used for
packaging the product. In marketing, a marketer can also use a sticker in
edible products to impart knowledge of the ingredients of the food items. This
helps to spread awareness among the customers about the item they are consuming
and labeling also helps to mention ingredients.
Types of labeling in marketing
There are various types of
labeling in marketing. Let us check out:
Branded Product Labels
Products need to be branded
to help with identification and play a key role in company brand building
programs. Branded Product Labels need to be securely bonded to the product
surface in a way that is best suited to that product.
are two types of branded labels:
With permanent labels, the
bonding has to be permanent and the label must be difficult to remove and
resistant to a number of factors.
Removable product labels, on
the other hand, need to adhere to the product only until they need to be
Eco or Information Labels
Information Labels or
Eco-Labels are used on consumer products such as foodstuff and fast moving
consumer goods. They are used to impart information to the consumer about the
product. Often these types are made out of eco-friendly substances so that they
do not interfere with the products they are associated with.
Other Product Label Types
There are a number of
different label types that are in common usage around the world that are
regular mass produced by specialist printing services.
What is product labeling?
Product Labeling is a key
feature in marketing. It helps to market the product allowing customers to know
about the item and give necessary messages including ingredients, instructions,
Product labeling can be done
in a variety of sizes, materials, and shapes. It plays a key role as a point of
sale display in the market shelves. They can also communicate information about
how to handle a product or how to dispose of it. You can use the labeling for
security reasons so that a product should not be misused. It is for these
purposes the labeling having the logo or the trademark of the company. All
these are different types of uses of the label for a product in the world of
What must you include in your label?
A label needs to comply with
the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (CCA). This Act is required to give
information to consumers, such as:
• The mandatory consumer product
information standards under the CCA
• Industry specific regulations, such as
the Food Standards Code
• Labels required by customs for some
imported products under the Commerce (Trade Descriptions) Act.
review of literature on food label use related to three types of food label
information that are most central to conveying nutrition and health
information: nutrition labels, ingredient lists, and claims.
food label use studies focus on nutrition labels; however, ingredient lists and
health/nutrient claims also play important roles in conveying the products’
diet and health information to consumers and, for this reason, are regulated in
the US by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The European Commission’s
regulation of food labels is limited to claims until very recently, although
food producers voluntarily provided nutrition labels and ingredients lists on
most packaged foods. Drawing on past research (Campos et al., 2011; Mhurchu
& Gorton, 2007), it adopts two broad categories to organize the literature
on food label use: whether or how often food labels are used (frequency) and
the ability to understand labels (comprehension).
Frequency of use and comprehension measures
can be further subdivided into subjective (e.g., self-reported assessment of
frequency, self-ratings of ability to locate and/or apply information) and
objective measures (e.g., experimenter’s observation of consumer food label
consultation or experimenter’s assessment of comprehension using questions
scored for accuracy).
Over 98% of FDA-regulated
processed, packaged foods have Nutrition Facts panels (NFPs) in the US and
roughly 84% of products in Europe have nutrition labels. Nutrition labels
typically contain information on calories, serving size, and amounts and/or
daily values of several macronutrients, vitamins, and minerals (e.g., fats,
In the US, the content of
NFPs is government regulated and must include serving size, calories,
nutrients, and percent of daily values of each nutrient. Close to two-thirds of
respondents in a survey report using most individuals are able to understand at
least some basic nutrition information on food labels. However, comprehension
accuracy decreases for more complex tasks. For example, Levy and Fein (Levy & Fein, 1998) found that most consumers
(78%) accurately identified nutrient differences between two products; however,
far fewer (20%) are able to calculate the contribution of a single food to a
total daily intake.
In addition to
non-nutrition information (e.g., additives), ingredient lists contain important
nutrition information that can contribute to the consumer’s assessment of a
food’s healthfulness. The US Dietary Guidelines 2010 states that: “The
ingredients list can be used to find out whether a food or beverage contains
synthetic trans fats, solid fats, added sugars, whole grains, and refined
grains.” Ingredient lists provide an account of ingredients within a product in
descending order of proportion by weight (i.e., ingredients at the end of the
list are present in smaller quantities). The FDA recommends that lists conform
to a variety of specifications to enable consumers to be informed
For example, basic
components of foods must be listed and products containing ingredients
consisting of several components must list the components in parentheses.
Font size and presentation should conform to federal
regulations to maximize readability, but even when they do, font size is a
frequent problem for consumers’ use of ingredient lists (Mackey & Metz,
consult the ingredient list portion of food labels. For example, self-reported
frequency of ingredient list use (as well as use of nutrition labels and
claims) is 52% in one study (Ollberding et al., 2010)
and even higher (78%) in another (Norazmir, Norazlanshah, Naqieyah, &
and Nutrient Claims
claims are intended to communicate scientifically proven health benefits
associated with consuming a particular food, for example, “low fat diets rich
in fiber may reduce the risk of some types of cancer.” One goal of nutrient
content claims is to communicate the value or relative amount of a specific nutrient
within a food product (e.g., good source of fiber, fat free, low calorie).
Claims have been shown to impact how other food label information is processed
and to influence other dietary behaviors
example, consumers sometimes use claims in place of NFPs. On the other hand,
claims sometimes have little impact on product evaluations and may even be misleading and confusing However, claim comprehension is higher among
those with greater experience and education (Dean, Lähteenmäki, & Shepherd,
2011; Verbeke, Scholderer, & Lähteenmäki, 2009).
knowledge, broadly defined, refers to knowledge of concepts and processes
related to nutrition and health including knowledge of diet and health, diet
and disease, foods representing major sources of nutrients, and dietary
guidelines and recommendations (Axelson & Brinberg, 1992; McKinnon, Giskes,
& Turrell, 2014; Moorman, 1996; Parmenter & Wardle, 1999).
some have argued that a narrower definition of nutrition knowledge may be
desirable (Axelson & Brinberg, 1992; Li, Miniard, & Barone, 2000),
Parmenter and Wardle (1999) suggest that a broad definition of nutrition
knowledge is needed to capture the complex and wide-ranging nature of the
information used to inform dietary choice. We make a similar argument that the
ability to use food labels draws on a wide range of situations and behaviors
that could potentially draw on many areas of nutrition knowledge.
For example, knowledge of the relationship
between diet and cancer may enable consumers to focus on fiber information
presented on the nutrition label and whole grains in the ingredient list.
Knowledge of dietary recommendations may support applying these pieces of
nutrition information to decide whether the food product represents a healthful
choice within the context of other foods the individual consumes that day.
Consistent with the cognitive literature, the various dimensions of nutrition
knowledge may be connected in such a way that they support each other, as an
integrated semantic network. In this review, we categorize the literature in
terms of the number of dimensions included in the nutrition knowledge
Attractive product design can also be
helpful to differentiate the competitive brand and to help make final decision
based on product design. A study indicates that 60% to 70% decision of final
purchase is also made on the basis of product labeling. Mostly for consumers
packaging plays their role as a meeting point. In simplified language packaging
works as a communication tool to deliver the product based message.
The ability of a label to generate values and
representations that are likely to influence overall purchase intention for a
product is termed label equity. This notion of label equity is derived from
that of brand equity defined in 1988 by the Marketing Science Institute as
“the set of associations and behaviors on the part of the brand’s
customers, channel members, and parent corporation that permits the brand to
earn greater volume or greater margins than it could without the brand
name” (Keller, 1998, p.43).
The research objective is to understand consumers’
perception on nutritional label and its influence on their purchase decision.
The review is restricted to empirical,
English-language, peer-reviewed studies examining knowledge effects on food
label use. Searches are conducted and reference lists of relevant articles and reviews
that are published between June 1999 and June 2014 (including in online first
print in 2015).
The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990
mandated compliance with a new set of regulations by May of 1994. The time
frame to allow a sufficient gap in time for consumers to become familiar with the
new labels and researchers to examine consumers’ familiarity with labels, which
is important factor for label use (Bialkova & van Trijp, 2010).
Similarly, the studies investigating relatively new
forms of nutrition information, namely, front-of-package symbols, which appear
on some products
following key word combinations to search each database:
“Knowledge” AND “consumer” OR “label
use” OR “use of *labels” OR “attention” OR “comprehension” AND “nutrition *
panel OR nutrition* label OR food label*” OR “ingredient list” OR “health
claim” OR “nutrition claim” yielded 55 abstracts.
Articles are screened for quality in terms of simplicity
of the descriptions of measures, methods, and findings. The studies are
excluded that did not include enough details of the nutrition knowledge measure
to evaluate whether it assessed nutrition knowledge rather than another type of
knowledge (e.g., functional foods, diabetes), did not make a distinction
between nutrition knowledge and constructs such as beliefs, confidence, or
attitudes, did not describe in detail or provide examples of food label use
questions, or did not differentiate between nutrition knowledge and food label
excluded with adequate measures of nutrition knowledge and food label use when
associations between the two measures are not reported. Coded food label use
measures in terms of frequency of use and comprehension, and within that,
self-reported and objective measures; The coded nutrition knowledge assessments
in terms of self-reported and objective measures. These criteria are coded by
the authors; harmony between raters is good (over 95%), and discrepancies are
resolved through discussion.
The final pool of articles (n=34) is shown in the exc.
Each is coded in source of items and different sdudies examined, and dimensions
included in the nutrition knowledge assessment as well as the source of the
measure. It also found a variety of
nutrition knowledge assessments, ranging from a single-nutrient focus to a
multidimensional approach, most typically employing Parmenter and Wardle’s
The table below summerizes the findings in terms of
which studies reported a positive association between nutrition knowledge and
food label use by type of measure. In the sections that follow, we present the
findings for each food label area. At the end of each section, findings
pertaining to aging are presenting. Although we did not exclude studies based
on age, none of the studies included individuals under the age of 17.
data are consistent with the notion that long-term working memory afforded by
nutrition knowledge supports both label use frequency and food label
comprehension. The more consumers know about nutrition, the more likely they are
to consult- and understand- nutrition information on food labels.
majority of studies reviewed here focused on knowledge effects on nutrition
label use, with fewer studies on claims, and even fewer on ingredients lists.
The finding that ingredient lists are neglected in this literature is
surprising given they contain information surrounding diet and health.
food label use as defined by frequency (how
often) is the most common assessment of food label use, with 26 of
the studies including this type of measure. It is possible that nutrition
knowledge provides more or less support for food label use depending on whether
food label use is defined in terms of how
often the label is used versus how
well the information in the label is understood and used to make
decisions. However, this dissimilarity is largely confounded with self-reported
versus objective assessment types across these studies. Thus, it is unclear
whether knowledge effects are qualified by quantity/quality or self-reported/objective
with the knowledge-is-power position, we found a positive association between
knowledge and food label use for 6 of 6 studies using self-reported measures of
knowledge and 21 of 33 studies using objective measures of knowledge. All but
one (Jacobs et al., 2011) of the studies with self-reported measures also
included objective measures. In these 5 studies, one study showed a difference
in the pattern of findings (Petrovici et al., 2012) such that only the
self-reported measure showed an association with food label use. In general,
however, both approaches showed associations with food label use, despite
possible differences in social desirability biases or underlying constructs
(Palmer, Graham, Taylor, & Tatterson, 2002).
a few studies (Howlett et al., 2008; Pletzke et al., 2010; Walters & Long,
2012), examined the effects of newly acquired knowledge on food label use, with
half of the participants to be assigned to a knowledge group and half to a
approach is important because, through random assignment, groups should be
comparable in all ways but knowledge levels. This approach could also be used
as part of an intervention to determine the amount of additional nutrition
knowledge required to affect incremental change in food-choice behaviors.
However, initial levels of nutrition knowledge are also critical. Past work has
found that baseline levels of knowledge are more predictive of weight loss
among obese, low-income mothers than are changes in knowledge due to the
intervention (Klohe-Lehman et al., 2006).
Cognitive Process Underlying Use of Food Labels suggests that nutrition
knowledge supports healthful food choices through information processing
associated with food labels. However, we recognize that knowledge could play a
broader role in food choice by supporting dietary intake regardless of food
is also recognize that some consumers are uninterested in eating healthful
foods or using food labels, regardless of their nutrition knowledge. Although
the present review does not address this issue, motivation may be an important
factor in encouraging consumers to think about the importance of nutrition in
food choice (Coulson, 2000; Lin, Lee, & Yen, 2004; Petrovici & Ritson,
2006; Suter & Burton, 1996).
it is unclear where motivation originates, it is possible that motivation and
knowledge co-evolve such that motivation predicts knowledge and knowledge
for Further Research
majority of studies presented here relied on convenience samples. Future
research should focus on including a wider, more representative sample. College
students, while important for understanding this group, but may not inform the
literature on other populations in terms of income, education, acculturation,
few studies included age ranges that would enable an examination of age
differences in the effects of knowledge. This is amazing for two reasons.
First, food label use may be even more important for older adults because of
their higher risk of diet-related chronic. Second, past work has shown the
advantages of knowledge in later life on a variety of cognitive tasks including
understanding and memory for nutrition texts.
area of research that warrants greater attention is the conceptualization and
measurement of the nutrition knowledge construct. It is stated that the
multifaceted nature of nutrition knowledge may limit the ability of researchers
to test associations with behaviors.
is another potentially fruitful approach to conceptualizing and measuring
nutrition knowledge. Cognitive researchers have also argued that the
distinction between declarative and procedural knowledge is important,
particularly in the area of skill development. However, with some exceptions,
this distinction is rarely applied to nutrition knowledge and, as far as we
know, no studies have included procedural and declarative nutrition knowledge
as separate constructs.
more research is needed to recognize the causal links among nutrition
knowledge, food label use, and dietary intake among different populations of
consumers in order to design more effective educational programs. Although no evidence is found to support this in the
present review, there could some individuals for whom nutrition knowledge could
lend a false sense of security that would lead to ignore food labels, a form of
maladaptive behavior .
research is also needed to understand how to encourage those who make poor
dietary choices to think about nutrition when deciding which foods to eat. It
may be the case that providing large amount of nutrition knowledge to some
groups of consumers would initiate a positive cycle of motivation and knowledge
is needed to understand how to sustain the growth of nutrition knowledge so it
that it leads to meaningful improvements in dietary behaviors.