IntroductionIndia, is known for itsculinary delights. A country known for its sugary snacks is soon making its wayto a healthy lifestyle.
With a young and tech savvy population,consumers areemerging as a health conscious population.Labeling is defining in the FederalFood, Drug and Cosmic Act (FFDCA) in the US as a written, printed or graphicmatter upon any article or any of its containers or wrappers. Labeling is asubset of packaging. Sellers need to label their products.The label may be asimple tag attached to the product or an elaborately designed graphic which isa part of the package.Makingconsumers to eat healthy is no trivial task. As health is valued by everybodyand thus, is one of the essential drivers of human behaviour, attempts tochange eating habbits by informing consumers about the link between diet andhealth have been difficult.
One of the important tools in trying to bring aboutmore healthy eating patterns has been nutrition labelling. Nutritional labeling isfound to affect the purchase behavior significantly. Some evidence reveals theprovision of nutrition information may allow consumers to switch consumptionaway from unhealthy food products in those food categories toward healthyproducts in food categories easily. Improvementsin nutrientintake of the population depend on the interaction of demandand supply forces in the food markets. .
On the demand side consumers’ interest in the purchase of diets and productswith improved nutritional profiles has a direct effect on nutrient intake. Nutritional labels cansimplify the whole concept of healthy eating. It helps to keep track of the amount of fatand sugar, sodium and fiber, protein and carbohydrates. It also allowsconsumers to make an informed judgement of a product’s overall value (APO,2002).
Therefore, the nutritional panelis a guide to a better diet and a healthier life (FDA, 1998). Consumers can usethe nutritional label to make food choices according to the Dietary Guidelinesdeveloped by health experts who emphasize the importance of a well-balanced diet. Each pack of the food arerequired to be marked with the following information:a. Name of the product andtrademark if anyb. Name and address of themanufacturerc. Batch or code numberd.
Net quantitye. Date of manufacturef. List of ingredientsg. Nutritional Claimh. Permitted Additivesi. MRPj. Best before datek.
Green dot marking forvegetarian Introductionto Labeling Marketers use labeling totheir products to bring identification. This kind of labeling helps a viewer todifferentiate the product from the rest in the shelves of the market. There areseveral used of the label for the products in the market.
Labeling is used forpackaging the product. In marketing, a marketer can also use a sticker inedible products to impart knowledge of the ingredients of the food items. Thishelps to spread awareness among the customers about the item they are consumingand labeling also helps to mention ingredients.
Types of labeling in marketingThere are various types oflabeling in marketing. Let us check out:Branded Product LabelsProducts need to be brandedto help with identification and play a key role in company brand buildingprograms. Branded Product Labels need to be securely bonded to the productsurface in a way that is best suited to that product.
Thereare two types of branded labels:· Removable· Non- RemvableWith permanent labels, thebonding has to be permanent and the label must be difficult to remove andresistant to a number of factors.Removable product labels, onthe other hand, need to adhere to the product only until they need to beremoved.Eco or Information LabelsInformation Labels orEco-Labels are used on consumer products such as foodstuff and fast movingconsumer goods.
They are used to impart information to the consumer about theproduct. Often these types are made out of eco-friendly substances so that theydo not interfere with the products they are associated with. Other Product Label TypesThere are a number ofdifferent label types that are in common usage around the world that areregular mass produced by specialist printing services. What is product labeling?Product Labeling is a keyfeature in marketing. It helps to market the product allowing customers to knowabout the item and give necessary messages including ingredients, instructions,and uses.Product labeling can be donein a variety of sizes, materials, and shapes. It plays a key role as a point ofsale display in the market shelves. They can also communicate information abouthow to handle a product or how to dispose of it.
You can use the labeling forsecurity reasons so that a product should not be misused. It is for thesepurposes the labeling having the logo or the trademark of the company. Allthese are different types of uses of the label for a product in the world ofbusiness. What must you include in your label?A label needs to comply withthe Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (CCA). This Act is required to giveinformation to consumers, such as:• The mandatory consumer productinformation standards under the CCA• Industry specific regulations, such asthe Food Standards Code• Labels required by customs for someimported products under the Commerce (Trade Descriptions) Act.
Review ofLiteratureThereview of literature on food label use related to three types of food labelinformation that are most central to conveying nutrition and healthinformation: nutrition labels, ingredient lists, and claims. Typically,food label use studies focus on nutrition labels; however, ingredient lists andhealth/nutrient claims also play important roles in conveying the products’diet and health information to consumers and, for this reason, are regulated inthe US by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The European Commission’sregulation of food labels is limited to claims until very recently, althoughfood producers voluntarily provided nutrition labels and ingredients lists onmost packaged foods. Drawing on past research (Campos et al., 2011; Mhurchu& Gorton, 2007), it adopts two broad categories to organize the literatureon food label use: whether or how often food labels are used (frequency) andthe ability to understand labels (comprehension).
Frequency of use and comprehension measurescan be further subdivided into subjective (e.g., self-reported assessment offrequency, self-ratings of ability to locate and/or apply information) andobjective measures (e.g., experimenter’s observation of consumer food labelconsultation or experimenter’s assessment of comprehension using questionsscored for accuracy).
Nutrition Labels Over 98% of FDA-regulatedprocessed, packaged foods have Nutrition Facts panels (NFPs) in the US androughly 84% of products in Europe have nutrition labels. Nutrition labelstypically contain information on calories, serving size, and amounts and/ordaily values of several macronutrients, vitamins, and minerals (e.g., fats,carbohydrate, calcium). In the US, the content ofNFPs is government regulated and must include serving size, calories,nutrients, and percent of daily values of each nutrient.
Close to two-thirds ofrespondents in a survey report using most individuals are able to understand atleast some basic nutrition information on food labels. However, comprehensionaccuracy decreases for more complex tasks. For example, Levy and Fein (Levy & Fein, 1998) found that most consumers(78%) accurately identified nutrient differences between two products; however,far fewer (20%) are able to calculate the contribution of a single food to atotal daily intake. Ingredient lists In addition tonon-nutrition information (e.g.
, additives), ingredient lists contain importantnutrition information that can contribute to the consumer’s assessment of afood’s healthfulness. The US Dietary Guidelines 2010 states that: “Theingredients list can be used to find out whether a food or beverage containssynthetic trans fats, solid fats, added sugars, whole grains, and refinedgrains.” Ingredient lists provide an account of ingredients within a product indescending order of proportion by weight (i.e., ingredients at the end of thelist are present in smaller quantities). The FDA recommends that lists conformto a variety of specifications to enable consumers to be informed For example, basiccomponents of foods must be listed and products containing ingredientsconsisting of several components must list the components in parentheses. Font size and presentation should conform to federalregulations to maximize readability, but even when they do, font size is afrequent problem for consumers’ use of ingredient lists (Mackey & Metz,2009).
Consumers frequentlyconsult the ingredient list portion of food labels. For example, self-reportedfrequency of ingredient list use (as well as use of nutrition labels andclaims) is 52% in one study (Ollberding et al., 2010)and even higher (78%) in another (Norazmir, Norazlanshah, Naqieyah, , 2012).Healthand Nutrient Claims Healthclaims are intended to communicate scientifically proven health benefitsassociated with consuming a particular food, for example, “low fat diets richin fiber may reduce the risk of some types of cancer.” One goal of nutrientcontent claims is to communicate the value or relative amount of a specific nutrientwithin a food product (e.g., good source of fiber, fat free, low calorie).Claims have been shown to impact how other food label information is processedand to influence other dietary behaviors Forexample, consumers sometimes use claims in place of NFPs.
On the other hand,claims sometimes have little impact on product evaluations and may even be misleading and confusing However, claim comprehension is higher amongthose with greater experience and education (Dean, Lähteenmäki, & Shepherd,2011; Verbeke, Scholderer, & Lähteenmäki, 2009). NutritionKnowledge ConstructNutritionknowledge, broadly defined, refers to knowledge of concepts and processesrelated to nutrition and health including knowledge of diet and health, dietand disease, foods representing major sources of nutrients, and dietaryguidelines and recommendations (Axelson & Brinberg, 1992; McKinnon, Giskes,& Turrell, 2014; Moorman, 1996; Parmenter & Wardle, 1999). Althoughsome have argued that a narrower definition of nutrition knowledge may bedesirable (Axelson & Brinberg, 1992; Li, Miniard, & Barone, 2000),Parmenter and Wardle (1999) suggest that a broad definition of nutritionknowledge is needed to capture the complex and wide-ranging nature of theinformation used to inform dietary choice. We make a similar argument that theability to use food labels draws on a wide range of situations and behaviorsthat could potentially draw on many areas of nutrition knowledge. For example, knowledge of the relationshipbetween diet and cancer may enable consumers to focus on fiber informationpresented on the nutrition label and whole grains in the ingredient list.Knowledge of dietary recommendations may support applying these pieces ofnutrition information to decide whether the food product represents a healthfulchoice within the context of other foods the individual consumes that day.Consistent with the cognitive literature, the various dimensions of nutritionknowledge may be connected in such a way that they support each other, as anintegrated semantic network. In this review, we categorize the literature interms of the number of dimensions included in the nutrition knowledgeassessment.
ConsumerPerceptionAttractive product design can also behelpful to differentiate the competitive brand and to help make final decisionbased on product design. A study indicates that 60% to 70% decision of finalpurchase is also made on the basis of product labeling. Mostly for consumerspackaging plays their role as a meeting point. In simplified language packagingworks as a communication tool to deliver the product based message. PurchaseIntention The ability of a label to generate values andrepresentations that are likely to influence overall purchase intention for aproduct is termed label equity. This notion of label equity is derived fromthat of brand equity defined in 1988 by the Marketing Science Institute as”the set of associations and behaviors on the part of the brand’scustomers, channel members, and parent corporation that permits the brand toearn greater volume or greater margins than it could without the brandname” (Keller, 1998, p.
43). Methodologyand DataThe research objective is to understand consumers’perception on nutritional label and its influence on their purchase decision. The review is restricted to empirical,English-language, peer-reviewed studies examining knowledge effects on foodlabel use. Searches are conducted and reference lists of relevant articles and reviewsthat are published between June 1999 and June 2014 (including in online firstprint in 2015). The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990mandated compliance with a new set of regulations by May of 1994. The timeframe to allow a sufficient gap in time for consumers to become familiar with thenew labels and researchers to examine consumers’ familiarity with labels, whichis important factor for label use (Bialkova & van Trijp, 2010). Similarly, the studies investigating relatively newforms of nutrition information, namely, front-of-package symbols, which appearon some products MethodologyThefollowing key word combinations to search each database: “Knowledge” AND “consumer” OR “labeluse” OR “use of *labels” OR “attention” OR “comprehension” AND “nutrition *panel OR nutrition* label OR food label*” OR “ingredient list” OR “healthclaim” OR “nutrition claim” yielded 55 abstracts.
Articles are screened for quality in terms of simplicityof the descriptions of measures, methods, and findings. The studies areexcluded that did not include enough details of the nutrition knowledge measureto evaluate whether it assessed nutrition knowledge rather than another type ofknowledge (e.g., functional foods, diabetes), did not make a distinctionbetween nutrition knowledge and constructs such as beliefs, confidence, orattitudes, did not describe in detail or provide examples of food label usequestions, or did not differentiate between nutrition knowledge and food labeluse.Studiesexcluded with adequate measures of nutrition knowledge and food label use whenassociations between the two measures are not reported. Coded food label usemeasures in terms of frequency of use and comprehension, and within that,self-reported and objective measures; The coded nutrition knowledge assessmentsin terms of self-reported and objective measures.
These criteria are coded bythe authors; harmony between raters is good (over 95%), and discrepancies areresolved through discussion. The final pool of articles (n=34) is shown in the exc.Each is coded in source of items and different sdudies examined, and dimensionsincluded in the nutrition knowledge assessment as well as the source of themeasure.
It also found a variety ofnutrition knowledge assessments, ranging from a single-nutrient focus to amultidimensional approach, most typically employing Parmenter and Wardle’s(1999) measure. The table below summerizes the findings in terms ofwhich studies reported a positive association between nutrition knowledge andfood label use by type of measure. In the sections that follow, we present thefindings for each food label area. At the end of each section, findingspertaining to aging are presenting.
Although we did not exclude studies basedon age, none of the studies included individuals under the age of 17.Summary ofFindingsThesedata are consistent with the notion that long-term working memory afforded bynutrition knowledge supports both label use frequency and food labelcomprehension. The more consumers know about nutrition, the more likely they areto consult- and understand- nutrition information on food labels. Themajority of studies reviewed here focused on knowledge effects on nutritionlabel use, with fewer studies on claims, and even fewer on ingredients lists.The finding that ingredient lists are neglected in this literature issurprising given they contain information surrounding diet and health.
Interestingly,food label use as defined by frequency (howoften) is the most common assessment of food label use, with 26 ofthe studies including this type of measure. It is possible that nutritionknowledge provides more or less support for food label use depending on whetherfood label use is defined in terms of howoften the label is used versus howwell the information in the label is understood and used to makedecisions. However, this dissimilarity is largely confounded with self-reportedversus objective assessment types across these studies. Thus, it is unclearwhether knowledge effects are qualified by quantity/quality or self-reported/objectivefactors.Consistentwith the knowledge-is-power position, we found a positive association betweenknowledge and food label use for 6 of 6 studies using self-reported measures ofknowledge and 21 of 33 studies using objective measures of knowledge. All butone (Jacobs et al., 2011) of the studies with self-reported measures alsoincluded objective measures.
In these 5 studies, one study showed a differencein the pattern of findings (Petrovici et al., 2012) such that only theself-reported measure showed an association with food label use. In general,however, both approaches showed associations with food label use, despitepossible differences in social desirability biases or underlying constructs(Palmer, Graham, Taylor, & Tatterson, 2002).Onlya few studies (Howlett et al.
, 2008; Pletzke et al., 2010; Walters & Long,2012), examined the effects of newly acquired knowledge on food label use, withhalf of the participants to be assigned to a knowledge group and half to acontrol group. Thisapproach is important because, through random assignment, groups should becomparable in all ways but knowledge levels. This approach could also be usedas part of an intervention to determine the amount of additional nutritionknowledge required to affect incremental change in food-choice behaviors.However, initial levels of nutrition knowledge are also critical. Past work hasfound that baseline levels of knowledge are more predictive of weight lossamong obese, low-income mothers than are changes in knowledge due to theintervention (Klohe-Lehman et al., 2006).TheCognitive Process Underlying Use of Food Labels suggests that nutritionknowledge supports healthful food choices through information processingassociated with food labels.
However, we recognize that knowledge could play abroader role in food choice by supporting dietary intake regardless of foodlabel useItis also recognize that some consumers are uninterested in eating healthfulfoods or using food labels, regardless of their nutrition knowledge. Althoughthe present review does not address this issue, motivation may be an importantfactor in encouraging consumers to think about the importance of nutrition infood choice (Coulson, 2000; Lin, Lee, & Yen, 2004; Petrovici & Ritson,2006; Suter & Burton, 1996). Althoughit is unclear where motivation originates, it is possible that motivation andknowledge co-evolve such that motivation predicts knowledge and knowledgepredicts motivation. Scopefor Further ResearchThemajority of studies presented here relied on convenience samples. Futureresearch should focus on including a wider, more representative sample. Collegestudents, while important for understanding this group, but may not inform theliterature on other populations in terms of income, education, acculturation,and race/ethnicity.
Moreover,few studies included age ranges that would enable an examination of agedifferences in the effects of knowledge. This is amazing for two reasons.First, food label use may be even more important for older adults because oftheir higher risk of diet-related chronic.
Second, past work has shown theadvantages of knowledge in later life on a variety of cognitive tasks includingunderstanding and memory for nutrition texts.Anotherarea of research that warrants greater attention is the conceptualization andmeasurement of the nutrition knowledge construct. It is stated that themultifaceted nature of nutrition knowledge may limit the ability of researchersto test associations with behaviors. Thereis another potentially fruitful approach to conceptualizing and measuringnutrition knowledge. Cognitive researchers have also argued that thedistinction between declarative and procedural knowledge is important,particularly in the area of skill development. However, with some exceptions,this distinction is rarely applied to nutrition knowledge and, as far as weknow, no studies have included procedural and declarative nutrition knowledgeas separate constructs. Finally,more research is needed to recognize the causal links among nutritionknowledge, food label use, and dietary intake among different populations ofconsumers in order to design more effective educational programs. Although no evidence is found to support this in thepresent review, there could some individuals for whom nutrition knowledge couldlend a false sense of security that would lead to ignore food labels, a form ofmaladaptive behavior .
Moreresearch is also needed to understand how to encourage those who make poordietary choices to think about nutrition when deciding which foods to eat. Itmay be the case that providing large amount of nutrition knowledge to somegroups of consumers would initiate a positive cycle of motivation and knowledgegrowth. Researchis needed to understand how to sustain the growth of nutrition knowledge so itthat it leads to meaningful improvements in dietary behaviors.