Intellectual property is a motivefor innovation that proved its importance in the past two decades. While manycountries do not care for or give the needed attention to this topic, the UnitedKingdom realizes that all creators crave a satisficing set of laws which ensuresand secures their rights, and by providing them with these right and participatingin many organizations that addresses this issue like WIPO, signing agreementssuch as the Bern Convention for the Protection of Literary and ArtisticWorks, the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, theUniversal Copyright Convention, the Geneva Phonograms Convention, and thePatent Cooperation Treaty and assigning the intellectual property office (IPO) which is a government body responsible for allintellectual property rights ,the rate of development and evolution of the country became noticeably increasing. Intellectualproperty consists of two parts (The Two Branches of Intellectual Property,2016), namely: copyrights, which are legal rights created by the law of acountry that grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights for itsuse and distribution. In the UK a balance between the rights of the creatorsand the audience is established as all authors, writers, music performers,artists, etc.
are granted their rights as their work is owned by them for up to70 years,(even if they’re unknown), but there are some cases where thesecreations can be used, like private and research study purposes, performance,copies or lending for educational purposes, criticism and news reporting or incidentalinclusion; Thereby excluding the chance of depriving knowledge or art fromreaching people.The second branch is industrialproperty which includes include industrial designs, patents for inventions,trademarks, layout-designs of integrated circuits, commercial names,designations, geographical indications and its protection against unfair competition.The United Kingdom has not ignored this branch either as it has robust realproperty laws stemming from legislation including the Law of Property Act 1925,which is an act to consolidate the enactments relating to Conveyancing and theLaw of Property in England and Wales. The Settled Land Act 1925,which is usedby a property owner who wants to ensure that provision of future generations ofhis family.
The Land Charges Act 1972, a UK Act of Parliament that updates thesystem for registering charges on unregistered land in England and Wales. Itrepealed and updated parts of the Land Charges Act 1925 and other legislationaffecting real property, and many more with the most recent being the LandRegistration Act 2002. The UK updates and revises all those acts and lawsregularly for a guaranteed satisfaction by its citizens, which indeed is showntill our present day.
In recent years, the Act of Knowledge(A2K) which is a movement defined as a loose collection of civil societygroups, governments, and individuals converging on the idea that access toknowledge should be linked to fundamental principles of justice, freedom, andeconomic development emerged to the scene. The highlight of this movement was TheGeneva Declaration on the Future of the World Intellectual PropertyOrganization, document signed in 2004 by a number of non-profit organizations,scientists, academics and other individuals urging the World IntellectualProperty Organization (WIPO) to focus on the needs of developing countries withrespect to intellectual property legislation. The authors and signatoriesbelieved that “the world is facing a crisis in the governance of knowledge,technology, and culture”, and blamed his crisis on the unequal access to vitalmedicines and education, anticompetitiveeconomic practices, concentration of ownership, technological measures such asdigital rights management (DRM), the fair compensation of authors and creators,and the locking up of the public domain by private interests. This resulted in theWIPO setting the development agenda in 2009, which the UK embraced. And finallyin 2013, the United Nation Human Rights Council resolution number A/HRC/23/L.20was accepted emphasizing on the “promotion and protection of all human rights, civil,political, economic, social and cultural rights, including the right todevelopment”.