Informed order for participant to decide the need

Informed consent can be defined as a legal document required for a
certain procedure or treatment in hospital. It also brings a definition as a
voluntary agreement made by a well-advice and mentally competent patient to be
treated or randomized into a research study. It
also carries a specific purpose according to the field that it been used
whether in medical field, or when conduct a research study. In research study,
informed consent is an important especially when involving a human subject.
There is an act that have been carried from the past that must not be violence
by the researcher. However, when human subject was involved, there will usually
have some ethical implication.

Several issues with informed consent when human
subject was involved had been recognizes. It based on these three basic
principles for protection in human rights. First is autonomy. Autonomy is the
ability to make your own decisions about what to do rather than being
influenced by someone else or told what to do. In this case, it is applied to
all participant that they must be given the respect from the researcher. They
also must be given the suitable time especially when making a decision. The
researcher must be explained detail regarding information of the study in order
for participant to decide the need to do or not doing the study. All decision
making must be free from any persuasion, threatening and pressure to

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Second is beneficence. It brings the meaning of
the fact or quality of being kind or doing good. In ethical issues for
protecting human right, beneficence is important in applying at all
participant. Researcher must be maximized the benefits to participant and
minimized the possible harmful effects of participant. Some of the potential
risk are include psychological or physical harm, loss of confidentiality of
participant, and also financial cost. All of the possibility harm that might
occur in the study must be explain clearly to the participant prior to sign the

Justice is the last basic principle in order to
protecting the human right. Justice is fairness in the way that people are
treated. Researcher must be fair in selecting the participant and in the
process of recruiting the participant to participate the study. There must also
be fair in distribution of benefits of participation in research. The
researcher must particularly ensure there is no exploitation of participant in
the conduct of research.   

doing research, there are five main ethical pillars that must be followed by
researcher. First, minimize the risk of harm to participants. This principle
stress on how a research should not harm participants by considering all
aspects that could bring harm such as physical harm, psychological distress and
discomfort, social disadvantage, financial status or an invasion of
participant’s privacy and anonymity. Non-maleficence requires a high level of
sensitivity from the researcher about what constitutes “harm” (Ford
L., 2009). Discomfort and harm can be physiological, emotional, social and economic
in nature (Burns N., 2005). By acknowledging these risk aspects, interventions
to avoid or minimizing the risk of harm could be taken by researcher.

attain informed consent from participants. The idea of informed consent is one
of the foundations of research. Informed consent means the knowing consent of a
person without undue inducement or any element of force, extortion, duress or
any other form of constraint or coercion. It is the researcher’s responsibility
to provide sufficient information in comprehensible and simple language on the
benefits and possible risks ahead of the participant’s involvement in the
research, so that participant can make a well-informed judgement about
participation. Informed consent is not just a form, but a process, when it was
done appropriately, the process assures that participants are willingly
participating in the research with full knowledge and information of relevant
risks and benefits. In some cases, that involve people with low autonomy such
as young children, very ill people or mentally disables, they could only be
included in research under specific circumstances, as they not able to make
fully informed decisions on their own. They should always be protected. 

third component of research ethics is by ensuring the anonymity and
individuality of research participants. Protecting anonymity of information
from participants means that either the researcher does not collect personal
information of participants such as name, address, email, job, year of services
or the researcher does not link individual responses with participants’
identities. Unless it is necessarily essential to the aimed protocol,
participant’s personal details should be keep ‘anonymous’ to protect the
participant confidentiality. Nonetheless, permission should be obtained before
any confidential information is used.

principle of research ethics is to reject any kinds of deceptive practices.
Deceptive may not be seen as an issue if an informed consent has been
performed, however the question is, how can the participants know what the
research requires of them if they are being deceived? this question makes the
use of deceptive practices in doubt. Therefore, dissertation research should
avert any types of deceptive practices. However, deception is sometimes being
allowed in covert research where the identity of the observer and the purpose
of the research is not known to participants. This is most likely to be the
case where a research needs an observation rather than through direct contact
with participants, for example; observing what type of customers who like
giving tips in the tip jar.

allowing the participants to withdraw is one of the principles of research
ethics that should be followed by researcher. Participants should have the
right to withdraw from the research process at any stage and when the decision
to withdraw was made, the participant should not be pressured or coerced in any
way in order to stop them from withdrawing. According to Good Clinical Practice
(GCP) guidelines, an individual can withdraw from research at any time without
revealing the reason of discontinuation.

basic principles of research ethics should be taken into account when
performing a research as it can help to warrant that researchers can be held
accountable to the public, in terms of human right, social responsibility and
public health and safety. Researchers should always be reminded that any
ethical breaks in research can significantly harm the subjects and result to a
low-quality research study.   


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