ii. The soft soil, which can be easily broken, makes it easy to dig canals and sink wells.
iii. The deep clay in the sub-soil acts as a reservoir for rain water which percolates through the porous alluvium. iv. The area has many perennial rivers, which can provide water for irrigation almost throughout the year. v. The large production and higher yield provide the farmer enough funds to spend on irrigation facilities. In the Peninsular Plateau region, the rocks are hard and the surface relief is highly uneven. Thus, it is difficult to dig canals and wells in the plateau region.
Tanks are widely used for irrigation purposes. Means of Irrigation: In different parts of India, different means of irrigation are used. It depends upon i. The topography of land, ii. Fertility of soils, iii. Amount and distribution of rainfall, iv. Availability of surface and groundwater, v. Nature of rivers (perennial or non-perennial), vi.
Specific requirements of the crops, etc. The important means of irrigation used in different parts of India are tanks, wells, tubewells, canals, etc. Tank Irrigation: i. The tanks are built partly as dugouts and partly by enclosing bunds. ii.
Most of the tanks are of small size and are built by individual farmers or groups of farmers. iii. It is estimated that there about 50 lac small tanks and about 5 lac big tanks irrigating more than 30 lac hectares of agricultural land. Tanks irrigation is very popular in the peninsular plateau region. Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh have been the traditional areas for tank irrigation. Both the states account for about 40 per cent of total area under tank irrigation in India.
The drainage area of Godavariand its tributaries have large number of tanks. Tank irrigation is also practiced in Orissa, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala and West Bengal. The popularity of tank irrigation in peninsular India is due to the following reasons: i. The undulating relief and hard rock’s makes it difficult to dig canals and wells. ii. There is limited percolation of rain water due to hard rock structure.
Thus, the groundwater is not available in large quantities. The rivers are seasonal and dry up in the summer season. Thus they cannot supply water to canals throughout the year. iii. The rivers become torrential during the rainy season.
The best way is to collect water in tanks or behind the dams. iv. Due to scattered settlements, the farmers favour tank irrigation.