In conclusion, standardization is
defined as the process of political and social norms of language usage. It
includes codification of English throughout the history of English’s ages that
displayed the language. The language has been supported by hybridity, variety
and change. The English language had been written in dictionaries depending on special
and specific standards. Also, it was commissioned to save the language. The
traditions of English in dictionaries were divided as a perspective and
descriptive. Finally, the story of English history reflects the inevitability
of English change. Although the written language in England had standard forms
and rules, English has spread all around the world in which different standard
varieties of English exist nowadays.
The codification of English was
not an equal process, though the descriptive aimed to require prescriptivism in
choosing and helping some deviations through others, not the sense of
describing usage. Prescription was affected by explaining the service of
and Laurel 2012).
To describe word usage neutrally in text of dictionary and to contain
independent usage notes, use tactic to pacify both descriptive urge and
perspective desire (Taylor, 2015). However, in Johnson’s dictionary the lexicon
followed the English language’s history and grammar. The grammar involved lists
of irregular verbs and affixes which are prefixes and suffixes. Moreover,
dictionary has some perspective grammatical rules (Gelderen and Elly
van, 2006). Samuel Johnson established the prescriptive dictionaries
marker practice with a critical tone. According to Al-kasimi, “Johnson’s
prescriptive tendencies had their origins in the European lexicography and in
the English philosophy of grammar”(Al-kasimi, A., 1977, P.83). On the other
hand, Oxford English Dictionary established the descriptive dictionaries which
tried to be objective accounts of language and tend to use semantically
ordinary lexicon in describing the practice. As a result, there are two
traditions in English for recording practice of dictionaries (Al-kasimi, 1977).
Permanency Johnson’s dictionary at present would assume that fantastically
prescriptive. Not solely does that only quote honest writers as if in imitation
of say, now not just this is whether a phrase perform stand used, but this is
the good use, the proper uses regarding the word. But also, Johnson includes
annotations who would not at all redact theirs access within a dictionary now.
Even a dictionary of, on railing then casual English. So he choice say things
kind of ‘bad’ next in conformity with the usage on a word. Or ‘cant’, very
common some which means it’s the jargon on a specific crew and profession then
he disapproved concerning that (The development of English dictionaries, 2012).
For each dictionary the criteria
used should be clear, obvious and coherent with its article. The dictionary
should be more than deficient list of words and store of lexical units (Gottlieb and Mogensen,
2007). Johnson recognized the meaning of words in his dictionary according to
the separate usage of criteria. He put onward a plan listing the groups of
meanings for each word, so every word has multiple meanings (Reddick, 1990).
Furthermore, when he used the sources for defining words, he had a clear idea.
Also, he had divided diverse senses of words in which often very public word
was used. This was a special thing which Johnson did it in his dictionary. He
gave a descriptive example of every meaning for each word. Thus, Johnson’s
dictionary regarded as the best book of English for prose, poetry or drama. The
Oxford English Dictionary defined the words in its own way. The average
standard was its currency in the language. For instance, they would
consider putting it into the dictionary if they collected five examples of a
word from five diverse sources over a ten-year period. This was in the old days
they used to use this method. Therefore, there is a combination of
circumstances which contribute to whether a word develops into the dictionary.
It depended on how widespread its currency is either commonly or in a
particular subject field (The development of English dictionaries, 2012).
While each of the Italians and the
French had its separate dictionary, British or English did not have its own. It
had been a national disgrace that it did not have its dictionary. As a result,
the authors and writers felt that they strongly need to have a great national
dictionary until Johnson’s dictionary came along. In London in 1857, the
argument at Philological Society ended up by having a paper saying that all
current English dictionaries were lacking and poor, so they need to have a new
dictionary that depends on the historical rules that involved in the present
and past English. Consequently, The New English Dictionary had been established
which was renamed later as The Oxford English Dictionary which was a national
dictionary. In the nineteenth century, English was spoken everywhere and not
only in Britain, so the English dictionary became an international dictionary
and not only national because of the huge scope in which the English language
was used (The development of English dictionaries, 2012).
After that, Thomas Dyche and
William Pardon had published the first dictionary to have a summary of grammar.
They named it New General English Dictionary (1735). In 1755, Samuel Johnson
published his own dictionary that was called Dictionary of the English
Language. This dictionary fixed the
standards for lexicon in America and England, and marked a move in language
authority from grammarians to lexicographers. Johnson made use of numerous
methods grammarians had used in grammar texts, so he was able to write this
huge dictionary. Johnson’s ability helped to change the language authority to
lexicographers. In addition, he wanted future generation to be able to read English,
so his dictionary helped settle the variations in language. Also, a new
standard for the power of dictionaries was set by Johnson’s method. Nowadays,
grammar texts served a purely educational role, while dictionaries held
linguistic power (Seargeant and Swann, 2012).
The codification of English in
dictionaries and grammar books has been applied throughout many ages. In the
seventeenth century, dictionaries were composed of simple lists of synonyms
which served as primitive definitions to translate alien language. However, the
text of grammar covered many of lexicographical components which are spelling,
pronunciation, etymology, definitions and usage notes. Decisions about the
English language were mainly taken by grammarians who used to consult English
grammars. In the eighteenth century, lexicographers developed more complete
dictionaries and grammarians did not stop to emphasis on related grammar
materials. Dictionaries were uncomplicated in which they contained short
definitions, synonyms, or explanation for each word. On the other hand, the
analytic information was included in grammar books (Seargeant and Swann, 2012).
The first English dictionary and word lists appeared after 1500. Changes
happened in spoken language did not affect the spelling because it had been
standardized at that time, so the English spelling system remained irregular (Gelderen and Elly van, 2006). Traditionally, the dictionary
into the nineteenth century has been criticized for the usage of the
ecclesiastic authors on the Victorian age. So the dictionary at as point had a,
a large number on quotations beside Dickens, Thackeray, Tennyson, Milton etc., Shakespeare.
There are 33,000 quotations beyond Shakespeare of the OED, who is drastically
higher than someone sordid unaccompanied author (The development of
English dictionaries, 2012).
To protect the English language
from getting lost, the scholars created four stages for the standardization of
English: selection, codification, elaboration and implementation. The most
important stage is codification in which norms are explained and clarified in
dictionaries or grammars. English language was codifies in dictionaries
throughout the history. These dictionaries were commissioned for many reasons
and their words were ordered depending on special norms. In addition, there is
a descriptive and a perspective accounts of English considered by a range of
Codification of English