In fragmented and broken chronology of events, effective

   In the light of above discussion and
analysis it is ample to state that Arundhati Roy is not complacent with
traditional power structures prevailing in society. These power structures are
informal, unjust, cruel and partial. They are responsible for creating
inequalities, making people susceptible to multiple sorts of oppression,
tyranny, victimization, exploitation, subjugation and humiliation. Patriarchy,
Casteism and Capitalism along with several other factors establishes and
promotes these power structures. Roy wanted to abolish these power structures
in order to put a final end to human, sufferings, miseries and sorrows. The
novel is portrayal of unequal power structure that is real factor responsible
for human miseries, sorrows and sufferings. Power structures that are created, promoted
and strengthened by unequal distribution of wealth, traditional gender
disparities, unjust and inappropriate caste systems and so on. Ammu and Velutha
deserve our appreciation that despite of all odds, they don’t submit to the
traditional power structures. They have the courage to withstand social
inequalities and atrocities. They don’t surrender to the unjust social taboos. They
don’t compromise on their freedom. They struggle to destroy the age old false
beliefs. They don’t submit to the traditional authorities. It does not matter
what happens with them in the end, the real beauty lies in their epic struggle
to defeat the odd circumstances. Their heroic struggle and manly death is exemplary.
What is interesting about them is their unconquerable resistance to cruel
social order.  They lay down their lives
but don’t compromise on their principles of freedom and equality. Through the
endeavours of Ammu and Velutha, Roy maps her attempt to reverse the trajectory
of traditional power structure. She uses compressed language to bring out the
oppression of the downtrodden. Her uncanny use of capitalisation, fragmented
and broken chronology of events, effective handling of stream of consciousness
and haphazard plot is the depiction of world of chaos, confusion and disorder
that invites the immediate attention of the people for its restoration and

The structure
and narrative style of The God of Small Things demand several bold and
innovative devices, as the novel dwells largely upon the problem of
externalizing the hidden motives and natures of the scheming men and women.
Both those involved in brutalizing the sentiments of the weak people and those
who are targeted need to be shown in their various states of mind. A simple
conventional formal approach would hardly serve to achieve the intensity of
dramatic presentation that Arundhati Roy so wonderfully achieves. A bold theme
needs a bold method.

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Stream of
Consciousness is one of those devices that she employs repeatedly in this
novel, not in its accepted manner as Virginia Woolf did, but in a modified
form, changing it to merge with other devices and creating a new inner vision.
For instance, interior monologue is in some cases made to admit the stream of
consciousness technique also as the two carry forward the story’s movement. In
frequently occurring “frozen-time-frame” moments there is much scope for the
author to fill in the expanded temporal area with descriptions that appear to
happen simultaneously.

Time moves
slowly in this novel, one of the reasons of Roy’s apparently intense
preoccupation with the formal and technical aspects. She uses very often
frozen-time-frames to elongate and magnify a moment’s micro world with rich
descriptions. She has shown in this novel that she can use the stream of
consciousness technique with supreme felicity, yet there are gaps in her
narrative structure that her lack of mature craftsmanship prevents her from
filling. It is through these gaps that the reader runs the risk of falling with
the little grip left over the main storyline.

This novel
unmistakably represents Arundhati Roy’s propensity for experimentation with
shape and dialect. The reader is brought those strange ways that the creator
investigates elaborately and uncovers the shrouded substances and truth that
generally would not be conceivable. In spite of the fact that in the strict
sense the creator does not noticeably utilize enchantment authenticity that we
find in Garriel Garcia Marquez or Alejo Carpentier, the story obviously travels
through a world where the qualification amongst reality and dream is obscured.
The kids’ perspective furnishes a system that regularly combines with the
grown-up’s vision. As per the acknowledged definition enchantment authenticity
resorts to depiction of the fanciful or the fabulous in a practical or
levelheaded way through sharp concentration pictures. In progress of Marquez
one finds the reasonable reportage blending in the degenerate dream. It has
been especially prominent with scholars of the recently freed underdeveloped
nations like Salman Rushdie, Mario Vargas Llosa, Miguel Angel Asturcas et

Arundhati Roy utilizes
this post-innovator method in isolated portions, or detached scenes, where her
idyllic flights of creative energy work effectively.

 “Estha was wearing his beige and pointy shoes
and his Elvis puff. His Special Outing Puff. His favorite Elvis song was
“Party.” “Some people like to rock, some people like to roll,” he would croon,
when nobody was watching, strumming a badminton racquet, curling his lip like
Elvis. “Bat moonin’ an’ a groonin’ gonna satisfy mah soul, less have apardy…”

Cuddon defines Magic
Realism as fiction which mixes and disrupts ordinary, everyday realism with
strange, impossible and miraculous episodes and powers. The hero of Salman
Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children (1981) receives telepathic communication from all
over India. A character in Milan Kundera’s The Farewell Party (1976) emits a
blue light after making love. Short stories and novels by Angela Carter rework
folk and fairy tales to create a particular kind of magic realism that mixes
the modern and the mythical. In this technique of writing the author breaks the
boundaries of realism while still engaging with political and social issues.

Roy often
extends a metaphor to cover a wide range of temporal and spatial realities.
That is, her metaphors are imaginative creations that lift the characters or
situations above the ordinary prosaic realities and enclose both the real and
the non-real into a new perceptual whole. The technique of magic realism in the
hands of Arundhati Roy becomes an effective means of journey into the interior
of the characters life. It reveals the potential areas in moments isolated from
humdrum life and lifts those moments to define a character’s state of mind. A
character’s life is characterized by the external compulsions as much as his/
her inner, imaginary dream- like drives. They, in him/her, often merge and
mingle to provide substance to the life. Such descriptions expand the little
moment into epical canvases. They lend them a ring of profundity. That’s how
Roy creates dramatic effect, through powerful metaphors, and single word
sentences arranged in different cases and structures.

No doubt, The
God of Small Things is about the themes of power structures in society and its
exercise to keep the socially marginalized under subjugation. However, apart
from this theme, if we want to look at another major aspect, we can say that it
is a spectacular attempt to explore various dimensions or expressive resources
of language. Very few novels in recent years have shown such overpowering
preoccupations with the semantic poetic potential of English as The God of
Small Things has done. So much that it has also been pointed out to be the
novel’s weakness, and she has been charged with overdoing things with language
at the cost of the theme.

Roy shows her
expertness in using metaphors with a view to deepening the meanings in the
novels. Following are some good examples

1.         Her tears trickled down from behind
them and trembled along her jaw like raindrops on the edge of a roof.

2.         Her face was pale and as wrinkled as a
dhobi’s thumb from being in water for too long.

3.         Rahel drifted into marriage like a
passenger drifts towards an unoccupied chair in an airport lounge.

4.         Ammu gathered up her heavy hair,
wrapped it around her face, and peered down the road to Age and Death through
its parted strands. Like a medieval executioner peering through the tilted
eye-slits of his peaked black hood at the executionee.

The novel is
replete with such similes and metaphors. Roy’s use of language can be viewed as
a homogeneous reality: there are used many forms of expression, containing a
number of devices, elements and movements. The author, being in possession of a
fine sense of the poetic resources of language uses the technique of repetition
of lines, expressions and words most effectively. We also find this technique
in Charles Dickens. Repetition of words or sentence structures primarily serves
to focus the reader’s attention on the intended topic or theme, create a
hypnotising influence on the reader’s senses and create a rhythmic pattern.

We also see that
Roy sometimes breaks one sentence into several small bits, each a complete
utterance. Normally where comas would occur, full stops are used so that the very
event or experience is fragmented into small complete experiences. A great part
of the novel uses children’s points of views. The alternate with the grown up’s
vision and create a strange two level structure to the novel. She presents the
world view through the eyes of Estha and Rahel, using the words and sentences
the way children would do taking liberty with their meanings in a free-
associating effort and coining new queer compounds. Sometimes the rules of the
grammar are deliberately broken to create amusement, as small children would
do; sometimes cases of the letters are changed to show what the children would
wish to highlight. The coming back of Estha after twenty three years is
referred to as re-Returning where we see capital R is used. She also uses
single words that create a dramatic impact. Often her sentences break or stop
half mid-way through delineating an experience or event and give way to single word
expression. Single words play a key role in creating dramatic tension in the


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