In contribute to a charity because her/his donation

In some form or another we have all experienced collective action problems whither its hearing a friend talk about not wanting to contribute to a charity because her/his donation would seem so small in a broad scale, or it can simply be participating in a social protest. So what is a collective action problem? The business dictionary defines it as “Behavior or action of a group working toward a common goal.” The problem is when individuals abuse the system and “free ride” the group or an organization. Many philosophers believe that humans are inherently selfish which is what creates the collective action problem. People tend to not want to work together because they’re only looking after their own self interest. A situation where everyone in a certain group has a choice between different alternatives, but rationally their opinions may change from their collective choices. In the given situation multiple individuals would all benefit from the specific action, but it tends to follow with a cost that one individual could not solve alone. “Formally, a collective action problem is any failure of a group of individuals to achieve an outcome everyone one likes at least as well as the outcome that results from everyone acting in her own self-interest. A collective action problem arises in a group setting when a strategy that is individually rational produces an outcome that is collectively inferior, for example while society as a whole would be better off if everyone cooperated by behaving honestly, an individual may benefit personally by defecting and engaging in corruption.” According to Science Direct.  A collective action problem arises when people acting independently produce a worse outcome than they would if they simply coordinated with others, but not all collective action problems can be solved.    There has been a lot of deep thinking about development problems over political parties and standing legislative committees help to achieve particular goals within the government. Political parties have many ways in solving collective action problems within communities. The majority party help brings coalitions to enact laws, they schedule legislations, they coordinate committee activity, they work with minority party, creates a system of leadership. There is laws, schedule legislation within the party. The party members try to obey that rules and regulation within the political parties. So if the party members differ from their collective action the decisions are taken by leader or speaker they accept it. So this is a solution of collective problem through making laws and rules within the party system and also making leadership within the parties. For example in democratic and republican party the decisions of leaders and speakers are accepted in the congress. This is how political parties solve collective action problem. They form different types of leader in various areas like religion, class, ideology etc.    Collective action dilemmas began whenever everyone in a group would like some public item to be produced while also wanting others in the group do the work to produce it. The issue becomes much larger when a group has a higher quantity and whenever the impact of each individual donation is low. When in large groups individuals tend to not stand up, help or change a situation because of the belief that someone else will take care of it. The same follows for the electoral process, many people do not vote because they understand that the one vote will not make a change, without applying the significance of a communities vote. Some individuals believe why we vote is because the cost of voting is so miniscule that it may be worth risking on the off chance that one person’s vote will make a change. Voting in a mass democratic society has the possibility to make a collective action problem in the extreme. Understanding that collectively we as a society can choose what we want within a government or policy solves the collective action problems in place.Why do some students chose to do little on a group project? It is because they tend to prefer to do something else or nothing at all and realize they can receive the same grade as the rest of the group without contributing the same effort. This result is known as the “free rider problem”, because some people can receive a free ride/benefits. Sometimes collective action problems are overcome because there is little or no choice on whether to join an organization. For instance, some organizations (citizen interest groups, economic interest groups, civil rights interest groups, religious interest groups) may demand a membership to maintain public good. Groups with financial resources have an advantage and others within a group may benefit. Certain interest groups and the ones who run it will use whatever incentives they have to overcome collective action problems and increase the numbers within their memberships. “To practice law, individuals may be required to join the American Bar Association or a state bar association. In the past, union membership could be required of workers, particularly in urban areas controlled by political machines consisting of a combination of parties, elected representatives, and interest groups.” According to     There are various ways to solve collective action problems, after researching within this class and online I found the three major solutions first being government regulation. A government has the power and control to declare it against the law and make individuals follow. Second is private ownership where if someone is to own a specific resource, then that person can restrict access. Lastly; community mobilization, groups of individuals can informally work together to maintain a corporation. But not all issues can be so simply solved, global environmental issues like climate change are on such a large scale that many obstacles are in place and presenting a solution will require more thought and a public mass will for change. Social norms is a  very important key way to promote action.


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