“In and Technology, Gujranwala. GROUP MEMBERS MUHAMMAD


                 “InThe Name of Allah, The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful Who Created Man FromA Clot””Read:And Your Lord is the Most Bounteous Who Taught By The Pen Taught Man Which HeDid Not Know”    AUTOMATICTRUE POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT USING ATMEGA32 (ARDUINO)       Session2014PROJECTSUPERVISORDR.HAROON FAROOQPrincipleof Rachna College of Engineering and Technology,Gujranwala. GROUPMEMBERSMUHAMMADAWAIS AKRAM                      2014-UETR-EE-17MUHAMMADHUSSAIN                                  2014-UETR-EE-25RANATAIMOOR                                       16-M/14-UETR-EE-51  DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICALENGINEERINGRACHNACOLLEGE OF ENGINEERING OF TECHNOLOGY,GUJRANWALA(ACONSTITUENT COLLEGE OF UET LAHORE)­­ AUTOMATICTRUE POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT USING ATMEGA32 (ARDUINO)ThisProject Report is submitted to department of Electrical Engineering, RachnaCollege of Engineering and Technology, Gujranwala, Pakistan, for partial  fulfilment of the requirements for the  Bachelor’s DegreeOfElectrical engineering     InternalExaminer                                               (Supervisor) ExternalExaminer                                                DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICALENGINEERINGRACHNACOLLEGE OF ENGINEERING OF TECHNOLOGY,GUJRANWALA(ACONSTITUENT COLLEGE OF UET LAHORE)­­  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  We would like to bow our before ALLAH Almighty, themost Gracious and the most Merciful. He has been our real supporter throughout.

We are highly indebted to our families for theirending support and encouragement, for spending their time, their resources forus and for providing us with a very comfortable and progressive workenvironment. Our mothers special prayers which never left us alone andespecially during this project in the moments of doom and disappointment theseprayers took us out of the darkness and were the real source of encouragementfor us.We want to thanks our Project Supervisor, Dr. Haroon Farooq who give us themotivation for this project. He was extremely kind and supportive throughoutthe journey.

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After that we would especially like to thanks Mr. Usman Aslam who helped us every time we went to him, giving ussample guidance and lending a helping hand. He was always ready to help us inthe project and guided us how to achieve the objectives of this project.We extend our deepest regards to all our friends andcolleagues who have been a source of encouragement and appreciation.     Regards,Muhammad AwaisAkramMuhammad HussainRana Taimoor           This project isdedicated to all those people of the world who never let this candle ofoptimism to extinguish even in critical circumstances. To those who sacrificetheir comforts to set noble standards. To those who are hopeful that theirefforts for good will be answered one day by Almighty Allah.

To those who havelove for humanity…….Dedicated to, ourbeloved parents, our countrymen fighting for peace, and the people who haveleft their place to assist the struggle for peace.        ABSTRACT  Power factor correction (PFC) is a technique of counteractingthe undesirable effects of electric loads that create a power factor that isless than one.

Power factor correction may be applied either by an electricalpower transmission utility to improve the stability and  efficiency of the transmission network orcorrection may be installed by individual electrical customers to reduce thecosts charged to them by their electricity supplier. In order to improvetransmission effect, power factor correction research has become a hot topic.Many control methods for the power Factor Correction (PFC) have been proposed.This thesis describe the design and development of a power factor corrector usingATmega32 chip. This involves measuring the power factor value using ATmega32and proper algorithm to describe and switch sufficient capacitors in order tocompensate reactive power, thus bringing power factor near to unity.

LabVIEW software is used to calculate the rmscurrent, rms voltage, phase angle of voltage and current, harmonic contents,active power, reactive power, apparent power and power factor of each phase ofphase of three phase power system. Total revue granted is also calculated.        TABLEOF CONTENTS CHAPTERNo.1 INTRODUCTION TO THE POWER FACTOR   (1-16)1.1     POWERFACTOR ————————————————————    2          1.1.1DEFINITION ————————————————————   21.

2     PHASEAND PHASOR DIAGRAM ————————————–    21.3     FORMSOF POWER FACTOR ——————————————–    21.4     CAUSEOF LOW POWER FACTOR ————————————-    2          1.4.

1NON-LINEAR LOAD ————————————————-   21.5     EFFECTOFLOW POWER FACTOR ————————————-    21.6     TYPESOF POWER FACTOR CONTROLLERS ———————–    21.7     CAPACITIVEPOWER FACTOR CORECTION ———————–    21.7.

1 DIFFERENT TYPESOF CAPACITIVE POWER FACTOR              CORRECTION——————————————————–   21.8     DEMERITSOF CPFC AND ITS SOLUTION ————————–    2          1.8.1CAPACITIVE SELECTION——————————————   2          1.

8.2SUPPLY HARMONICS———————————————–   21.9     OBJECTIVEOF WORK —————————————————    21.10   APPLICATION————————————————————–    2          1.

10.1ELECTRCITY INDUSTRY —————————————-   2          1.10.

2SMPS ——————————————————————   21.11   BENEFITSOF POWER FACTOR CORRECTION ——————-    2 CHAPTERNo.2 POWER FACTOR MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL (1-16)2.1     POWERFACTOR MEASUREMENTS METHODS —————–   2          2.1.1POWER FACTOR =R/Z ———————————————   2          2.

1.2POWER FACTOR =KW/KVA ————————————-   2          2.1.3USING THD   ——————————————————–   2          2.1.4POWER FACTOR = COS ??T———————————   22.

2     CONTROLOF POWER FACTOR ————————————-    2          2.2.1WHY NWWD TO CONTROL PF   ——————————   22.3     DEVICEFOR POWER FACTOR CONTROL ———————–    22.

4     WHYCAPACITORS ARE USED TO IMPROVE THE PF ——–    22.5     POWERFACTOR CORRECTION FROM CAPACITOR———-   2          2.5.1OVERVIEW ———————————————————   2          2.

5.2POWER FACTOR CORRECTION CAPACITOR CURRENT            2.5.3POWER FACTOR CORRECTION CAPACITOR SWITCHING 2.5     HOW DOCAPACITORS CORRECT POWER FACTOR———– 22.5     POWERFACTOR IMPROVEMENT BY THE USE OF CAPACITOR CHAPTERNo.3        THE CONTROL CIRCUIT                        (1-16)3.1     METHODOLOGY———————————————————–23.

2     5VREGULATED DC POWER SUPPLY —————————-    2          3.2.1MAIN COMPONENTS ——————————————–   23.3     ATmega32HARDWARE DESCRIPTION —————————    2          3.

3.1FEATURES———————————————————-   2          3.3.2DESCRIPTION——————————————————   2          3.3.3PIN CONFIGURATION ——————————————-   2          3.

3.4PIN DESCRIPTION ————————————————   23.4     SWITCHING—————————————————————    2          3.3.1TRIACS—————————————————————   23.

5     TRIACDRIVING CIRCUIT ——————————————–    23.6     ADC0804 ——————————————————————    2          3.6.1PIN DIAGRAM —————————————————–   2          3.6.2PIN DESCRIPTION OF ADC 0840——————————   23.7     LIQUIDCRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD) ———————————    2          3.7.

1PIN DIAGRAM ——————————————————   2          3.7.2PIN DESCRIPTION ————————————————-   23.

8     LOADS———————————————————————-    23.9     INTERFACINGOF DIFFERENT COMPONENTS —————–   2          3.9.1HOW TO INTERFACE ADC 0840 TO ATmega32 ———–   2          3.9.

2PIN DESCRIPTION ————————————————-   23.10   INTERFACINGOF LCD WITH MICROCONTROLLER———-   2 CHAPTERNo.4       INTRODUCTON TO SPFTWARE             (1-16)4.

1     INTRODUCTIONTO MATLAB—————————————    24.1     INTRODUCTIONTO Lab-VIEW—————————————    2          4.1.1OVERVIEW———————————————————      2          4.1.2FRONT PANEL——————————————————    2          4.1.

3BLOCK DIAGRAM————————————————-    2          4.1.4TERMINAL———————————————————–    2          4.1.

5NODES—————————————————————-     2          4.1.1WIRES —————————————————————-     24.2     BUILDINGTHE FRONT PANEL —————————————    2          4.2.1FRONT PANEL CONTROLS AND INDICATORS————    2          4.2.2CONFIGURING FRONT PANEL OBJECTS——————–   2          4.

2.3REPLACING FRONT PANEL OBJECTS————————   2          4.2.4COLORING OBJECTS———————————————-   2          4.

2.5SCALING FRONT PANEL OBJECTS—————————-   24.3     BUILDINGTHE BLOCK DIAGRAM ———————————–   24.3.1 RELATIONSHIPBETWEEN FRONT PANEL AND BLOCK      DIAGRAM OBJECTS —————————————————-    2          4.

3.2BLOCK DIAGRAM TERMINALS ——————————-   2          4.3.3BLOCK DIAGRAM NODES—————————————   2          4.3.

4WIRING OF OBJECTS———————————————-   2          4.3.5DESIGNING THE BLOCK DIAGRAM—————————   24.4     RUNINGAND DEBUGGING VIs —————————————    2          4.4.1RUNING Vis     ————    2          4.

4.2CORRECTING BROKEN VIs——————–  2          4.4.3DEBUGGING TECHNIQUES ————————  2 CHAPTERNo.5      INTRODUCTON TO C PROGRMING                (1-16)5.1     INTRODUCTION—————————————    25.2     WHY ISC USEFUL? —————————————    25.3     WHATKIND OF LANGUAGE IS C? ——————————–    25.

4     MAKINGC RUN ——————————–   25.5     CREATINGPROGRAMS ——————————–   25.6     WHATCOMPRISES A C PROGRAM? ——————————–    25.7     CONTROLLINGTHE COMPILER ——————————–   25.8     STORINGTHE DATA ——————————–   25.9     DESCRIBINGTHE DATA ——————————–   25.10   VARIABLESAND DATA——————————–   25.

11   DECLARATION——————————–    2          4.11.1INT VARIABLES     ————    2          4.11.2FLOAT VARIABLES ——————–   2          4.11.3CHAIR VARIABLES ————————  25.

12   THECOMPILE AND LINK PROCESS ——————————–    2   CHAPTERNo.6     SIMULATION IN MATLAB     (1-16)6.1     DESCRIPTIONOF SIMULATION—————————————    26.2     FLOWCHART OF SIMULATION —————————————    26.

3     ALGORITHMOF PROGRMING? ——————————–    26.4     BLOCKDIAGRAM ODF SIMULATOIN ——————————–    2 CHAPTERNo.7     SIMULATION IN LABVIEW    (1-16)7.1     INTRODUCTOIN—————————————    27.2     DESCRIPTIONOF SIMULATION —————————————    2          7.2.1GENERATOR     ————    2          7.2.

2POWER FACTOR IMPROVMENT——————–  2                   7.2.2.1REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION ————  2                   7.2.

2.2CALCULATING THE CAPACITOR VALUE ———   2CHAPTERNo.8     CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE       (1-16)7.1     CONCLUSION—————————————   27.2     RECOMENDATOIN—————————————   2 REFRENCESAPENDIX       LISTOF FIGURES Figures Page                                                                                                                                                               LISTOF ABBREVIATIONS ADC Analog To Digital Converter PF Power Factor PFC Power Factor Correction LCD Liquid Crystal Display THD Total Harmonics Distortion OR Out of Range LPF Low Power Factor HPF High Power Factor VAR Volt Ampere Reactive SVC Static VAR Compensation KWH Kilowatt-Hour CPFC Capacitive Power Factor Correction              LISTOF TABLES Table Page                               ORGANIZATIONOF THESISChapterNo.

1:Fist chapter contains the detailed information aboutthe power and its correction methods especially the capacitor correctionmethods. This chapter also describes the demerits of CPFC and its solution andalso benefits of power factor correction.ChapterNo.

2:Second chapter describes the methods of measurementsand control of power factor.ChapterNo. 3:Third chapter tells about the components such asregulated power supply, hardware description of ATmega32 microcontroller,triacs , ADC0840, LCD and interfacing of different components.ChapterNo. 4:Fourth chapter gives the introduction to softwareused in the simulation work (MATLAB and Lab-VIEW)ChapterNo. 5:Fifth chapter gives information about the c programing.

ChapterNo. 6 & 7:Sixth and seven chapter describes the simulationwork and those chapters are core of this thesis. ChapterNo. 8:This chapter contains the conclusion and futurerecommendations.Appendix:Code for power factor improvement     CHAPTER# 01                                                                INTRODUCTION CHAPTER01 INTRODUCTION   ü PowerFactorü Causeof Low Power Factorü Effectsof Low Power Factorü Typesof Power Factor controllerü CapacitivePower Factor Correctionü Demeritsof CPFC and its Solutionü Objectivesof workü Applicationsü Benefitsof Power factor Correction    CHAPTER# 01                                                                INTRODUCTION 1.

1Power Factor: 1.1.1   Definition:                      Power factor is definedas “The cosine angle between voltage and current in an A.C circuit”. In an A.

Ccircuit, there is generally a phase difference between voltage and current. Theterm cosine ? is called power factor ofthe circuit. If the circuit is inductive, the current lags behind the voltageand power factor is referred to as lagging. However, in a capacitive circuitleads the voltages and the power factor is to be leading.

Power factor is the ratio between actual powers tothe apparent power. For purely resistive load the power factor is unity. Active andreactive power is designed by P and Q respectively. The average power in acircuit is called active power and the power that supplies the stored energy inreactive elements is called reactive power. From the phasor diagram for diagram for AC impedance,it can be seen that the power factor is R/Z. For a purely resistive AC circuit,R=Z and the power factor = 1.The low power factor is highly undesirable as itcauses an increase I current, resulting in additional losses in active power inall elements of a power system from power station generator down to theutilization devices 1-3.

 1.2Phase and Phasor Diagram:          When capacitors orinductors are involved in an AC circuit,                        CHAPTER# 01                                                                INTRODUCTION                          CHAPTER# 01                                                                INTRODUCTION                          CHAPTER# 01                                                                INTRODUCTION 

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