“In AWAIS AKRAM 2014-UETR-EE-17 MUHAMMAD HUSSAIN 2014-UETR-EE-25 RANA


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“In
The Name of Allah, The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful Who Created Man From
A Clot”

“Read:
And Your Lord is the Most Bounteous Who Taught By The Pen Taught Man Which He
Did Not Know”

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AUTOMATIC
TRUE POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT USING ATMEGA32 (ARDUINO)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Session
2014

PROJECT
SUPERVISOR

DR.
HAROON FAROOQ

Principle
of Rachna College of Engineering and Technology,

Gujranwala.

 

GROUP
MEMBERS

MUHAMMAD
AWAIS AKRAM                      2014-UETR-EE-17

MUHAMMAD
HUSSAIN                                  2014-UETR-EE-25

RANA
TAIMOOR                                       
16-M/14-UETR-EE-51

 

 

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING

RACHNA
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING OF TECHNOLOGY,

GUJRANWALA

(A
CONSTITUENT COLLEGE OF UET LAHORE)­­

 

AUTOMATIC
TRUE POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT USING ATMEGA32 (ARDUINO)

This
Project Report is submitted to department of Electrical Engineering, Rachna
College of Engineering and Technology, Gujranwala, Pakistan, for partial  fulfilment of the requirements for the

 

 

Bachelor’s Degree

Of

Electrical engineering

 

 

 

 

 

Internal
Examiner                                               

(Supervisor)

 

External
Examiner                                            

 

 

 

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL
ENGINEERING

RACHNA
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING OF TECHNOLOGY,

GUJRANWALA

(A
CONSTITUENT COLLEGE OF UET LAHORE)­­

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

 

 

We would like to bow our before ALLAH Almighty, the
most Gracious and the most Merciful. He has been our real supporter throughout.

We are highly indebted to our families for their
ending support and encouragement, for spending their time, their resources for
us and for providing us with a very comfortable and progressive work
environment. Our mothers special prayers which never left us alone and
especially during this project in the moments of doom and disappointment these
prayers took us out of the darkness and were the real source of encouragement
for us.

We want to thanks our Project Supervisor, Dr. Haroon Farooq who give us the
motivation for this project. He was extremely kind and supportive throughout
the journey. After that we would especially like to thanks Mr. Usman Aslam who helped us every time we went to him, giving us
sample guidance and lending a helping hand. He was always ready to help us in
the project and guided us how to achieve the objectives of this project.

We extend our deepest regards to all our friends and
colleagues who have been a source of encouragement and appreciation.

 

 

 

 

 

Regards,

Muhammad Awais
Akram

Muhammad Hussain

Rana Taimoor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

This project is
dedicated to all those people of the world who never let this candle of
optimism to extinguish even in critical circumstances. To those who sacrifice
their comforts to set noble standards. To those who are hopeful that their
efforts for good will be answered one day by Almighty Allah. To those who have
love for humanity…….

Dedicated to, our
beloved parents, our countrymen fighting for peace, and the people who have
left their place to assist the struggle for peace.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

 

Power factor correction (PFC) is a technique of counteracting
the undesirable effects of electric loads that create a power factor that is
less than one. Power factor correction may be applied either by an electrical
power transmission utility to improve the stability and  efficiency of the transmission network or
correction may be installed by individual electrical customers to reduce the
costs charged to them by their electricity supplier. In order to improve
transmission effect, power factor correction research has become a hot topic.
Many control methods for the power Factor Correction (PFC) have been proposed.
This thesis describe the design and development of a power factor corrector using
ATmega32 chip. This involves measuring the power factor value using ATmega32
and proper algorithm to describe and switch sufficient capacitors in order to
compensate reactive power, thus bringing power factor near to unity.

LabVIEW software is used to calculate the rms
current, rms voltage, phase angle of voltage and current, harmonic contents,
active power, reactive power, apparent power and power factor of each phase of
phase of three phase power system. Total revue granted is also calculated.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE
OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER
No.1 INTRODUCTION TO THE POWER FACTOR   (1-16)

1.1     POWER
FACTOR ————————————————————    2

          1.1.1
DEFINITION ————————————————————   2

1.2     PHASE
AND PHASOR DIAGRAM ————————————–    2

1.3     FORMS
OF POWER FACTOR ——————————————–    2

1.4     CAUSE
OF LOW POWER FACTOR ————————————-    2

          1.4.1
NON-LINEAR LOAD ————————————————-   2

1.5     EFFECTOF
LOW POWER FACTOR ————————————-    2

1.6     TYPES
OF POWER FACTOR CONTROLLERS ———————–    2

1.7     CAPACITIVE
POWER FACTOR CORECTION ———————–    2

1.7.1 DIFFERENT TYPES
OF CAPACITIVE POWER FACTOR              CORRECTION
——————————————————–   2

1.8     DEMERITS
OF CPFC AND ITS SOLUTION ————————–    2

          1.8.1
CAPACITIVE SELECTION——————————————   2

          1.8.2
SUPPLY HARMONICS———————————————–   2

1.9     OBJECTIVE
OF WORK —————————————————    2

1.10   APPLICATION
————————————————————–    2

          1.10.1
ELECTRCITY INDUSTRY —————————————-   2

          1.10.2
SMPS ——————————————————————   2

1.11   BENEFITS
OF POWER FACTOR CORRECTION ——————-    2

 

CHAPTER
No.2 POWER FACTOR MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL (1-16)

2.1     POWER
FACTOR MEASUREMENTS METHODS —————–   
2

          2.1.1
POWER FACTOR =R/Z ———————————————   2

          2.1.2
POWER FACTOR =KW/KVA ————————————-   2

          2.1.3
USING THD   ——————————————————–   2

          2.1.4
POWER FACTOR = COS ??T
———————————   2

2.2     CONTROL
OF POWER FACTOR ————————————-    2

          2.2.1
WHY NWWD TO CONTROL PF   ——————————   2

2.3     DEVICE
FOR POWER FACTOR CONTROL ———————–    2

2.4     WHY
CAPACITORS ARE USED TO IMPROVE THE PF ——–    2

2.5     POWER
FACTOR CORRECTION FROM CAPACITOR———-   
2

          2.5.1
OVERVIEW ———————————————————   2

          2.5.2
POWER FACTOR CORRECTION CAPACITOR CURRENT  

          2.5.3
POWER FACTOR CORRECTION CAPACITOR SWITCHING

2.5     HOW DO
CAPACITORS CORRECT POWER FACTOR———– 2

2.5     POWER
FACTOR IMPROVEMENT BY THE USE OF CAPACITOR

 

CHAPTER
No.3        THE CONTROL CIRCUIT                        (1-16)

3.1     METHODOLOGY———————————————————–
2

3.2     5V
REGULATED DC POWER SUPPLY —————————-    2

          3.2.1
MAIN COMPONENTS ——————————————–   2

3.3     ATmega32
HARDWARE DESCRIPTION —————————    2

          3.3.1
FEATURES———————————————————-   2

          3.3.2
DESCRIPTION——————————————————   2

          3.3.3
PIN CONFIGURATION ——————————————-   2

          3.3.4
PIN DESCRIPTION ————————————————   2

3.4     SWITCHING—————————————————————    2

          3.3.1
TRIACS—————————————————————   2

3.5     TRIAC
DRIVING CIRCUIT ——————————————–    2

3.6     ADC
0804 ——————————————————————    2

          3.6.1
PIN DIAGRAM —————————————————–   2

          3.6.2
PIN DESCRIPTION OF ADC 0840——————————   2

3.7     LIQUID
CRYSTAL DISPLAY (LCD) ———————————    2

          3.7.1
PIN DIAGRAM ——————————————————   2

          3.7.2
PIN DESCRIPTION ————————————————-   2

3.8     LOADS
———————————————————————-    2

3.9     INTERFACING
OF DIFFERENT COMPONENTS —————–   
2

          3.9.1
HOW TO INTERFACE ADC 0840 TO ATmega32 ———–   2

          3.9.2
PIN DESCRIPTION ————————————————-   2

3.10   INTERFACING
OF LCD WITH MICROCONTROLLER———-   
2

 

CHAPTER
No.4       INTRODUCTON TO SPFTWARE             (1-16)

4.1     INTRODUCTION
TO MATLAB—————————————    2

4.1     INTRODUCTION
TO Lab-VIEW—————————————    2

          4.1.1
OVERVIEW———————————————————      2

          4.1.2
FRONT PANEL——————————————————    2

          4.1.3
BLOCK DIAGRAM————————————————-    2

          4.1.4
TERMINAL———————————————————–    2

          4.1.5
NODES—————————————————————-     2

          4.1.1
WIRES —————————————————————-     2

4.2     BUILDING
THE FRONT PANEL —————————————    2

          4.2.1
FRONT PANEL CONTROLS AND INDICATORS————    2

          4.2.2
CONFIGURING FRONT PANEL OBJECTS——————–   2

          4.2.3
REPLACING FRONT PANEL OBJECTS————————   2

          4.2.4
COLORING OBJECTS———————————————-   2

          4.2.5
SCALING FRONT PANEL OBJECTS—————————-   2

4.3     BUILDING
THE BLOCK DIAGRAM ———————————–   2

4.3.1 RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN FRONT PANEL AND BLOCK      
DIAGRAM OBJECTS —————————————————-    2

          4.3.2
BLOCK DIAGRAM TERMINALS ——————————-   2

          4.3.3
BLOCK DIAGRAM NODES—————————————   2

          4.3.4
WIRING OF OBJECTS———————————————-   2

          4.3.5
DESIGNING THE BLOCK DIAGRAM—————————   2

4.4     RUNING
AND DEBUGGING VIs —————————————    2

          4.4.1
RUNING Vis     ————    2

          4.4.2
CORRECTING BROKEN VIs——————–  
2

          4.4.3
DEBUGGING TECHNIQUES ————————  
2

 

CHAPTER
No.5      INTRODUCTON TO C PROGRMING                (1-16)

5.1     INTRODUCTION—————————————    2

5.2     WHY IS
C USEFUL? —————————————    2

5.3     WHAT
KIND OF LANGUAGE IS C? ——————————–    2

5.4     MAKING
C RUN ——————————–   
2

5.5     CREATING
PROGRAMS ——————————–   
2

5.6     WHAT
COMPRISES A C PROGRAM? ——————————–    2

5.7     CONTROLLING
THE COMPILER ——————————–   
2

5.8     STORING
THE DATA ——————————–   
2

5.9     DESCRIBING
THE DATA ——————————–   
2

5.10   VARIABLES
AND DATA——————————–   
2

5.11   DECLARATION
——————————–    2

          4.11.1
INT VARIABLES     ————    2

          4.11.2
FLOAT VARIABLES ——————–   2

          4.11.3
CHAIR VARIABLES ————————  
2

5.12   THE
COMPILE AND LINK PROCESS ——————————–    2

 

 

 

CHAPTER
No.6     SIMULATION IN MATLAB     (1-16)

6.1     DESCRIPTION
OF SIMULATION—————————————    2

6.2     FLOW
CHART OF SIMULATION —————————————    2

6.3     ALGORITHM
OF PROGRMING? ——————————–    2

6.4     BLOCK
DIAGRAM ODF SIMULATOIN ——————————–    2

 

CHAPTER
No.7     SIMULATION IN LABVIEW    (1-16)

7.1     INTRODUCTOIN—————————————    2

7.2     DESCRIPTION
OF SIMULATION —————————————    2

          7.2.1
GENERATOR     ————    2

          7.2.2
POWER FACTOR IMPROVMENT——————–  
2

                   7.2.2.1
REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION ————  
2

                   7.2.2.2
CALCULATING THE CAPACITOR VALUE ———   
2

CHAPTER
No.8     CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE       (1-16)

7.1     CONCLUSION
—————————————   
2

7.2     RECOMENDATOIN
—————————————   
2

 

REFRENCES

APENDIX

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST
OF FIGURES

Figures

Page

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST
OF ABBREVIATIONS

ADC

Analog
To Digital Converter

PF

Power
Factor

PFC

Power
Factor Correction

LCD

Liquid
Crystal Display

THD

Total
Harmonics Distortion

OR

Out
of Range

LPF

Low
Power Factor

HPF

High
Power Factor

VAR

Volt
Ampere Reactive

SVC

Static
VAR Compensation

KWH

Kilowatt-Hour

CPFC

Capacitive
Power Factor Correction

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST
OF TABLES

Table

Page

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ORGANIZATION
OF THESIS

Chapter
No. 1:

Fist chapter contains the detailed information about
the power and its correction methods especially the capacitor correction
methods. This chapter also describes the demerits of CPFC and its solution and
also benefits of power factor correction.

Chapter
No. 2:

Second chapter describes the methods of measurements
and control of power factor.

Chapter
No. 3:

Third chapter tells about the components such as
regulated power supply, hardware description of ATmega32 microcontroller,
triacs , ADC0840, LCD and interfacing of different components.

Chapter
No. 4:

Fourth chapter gives the introduction to software
used in the simulation work (MATLAB and Lab-VIEW)

Chapter
No. 5:

Fifth chapter gives information about the c programing.

Chapter
No. 6 & 7:

Sixth and seven chapter describes the simulation
work and those chapters are core of this thesis.

Chapter
No. 8:

This chapter contains the conclusion and future
recommendations.

Appendix:

Code for power factor improvement

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER
# 01                                                                INTRODUCTION

 

CHAPTER

01

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

 

ü Power
Factor

ü Cause
of Low Power Factor

ü Effects
of Low Power Factor

ü Types
of Power Factor controller

ü Capacitive
Power Factor Correction

ü Demerits
of CPFC and its Solution

ü Objectives
of work

ü Applications

ü Benefits
of Power factor Correction

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER
# 01                                                                INTRODUCTION

 

1.1
Power Factor:

 

1.1.1   
Definition:

                      Power factor is defined
as “The cosine angle between voltage and current in an A.C circuit”. In an A.C
circuit, there is generally a phase difference between voltage and current. The
term cosine ? is called power factor of
the circuit. If the circuit is inductive, the current lags behind the voltage
and power factor is referred to as lagging. However, in a capacitive circuit
leads the voltages and the power factor is to be leading.

Power factor is the ratio between actual powers to
the apparent power.

For purely resistive load the power factor is unity. Active and
reactive power is designed by P and Q respectively. The average power in a
circuit is called active power and the power that supplies the stored energy in
reactive elements is called reactive power.

From the phasor diagram for diagram for AC impedance,
it can be seen that the power factor is R/Z. For a purely resistive AC circuit,
R=Z and the

power factor = 1.

The low power factor is highly undesirable as it
causes an increase I current, resulting in additional losses in active power in
all elements of a power system from power station generator down to the
utilization devices 1-3.

 

1.2
Phase and Phasor Diagram:

          When capacitors or
inductors are involved in an AC circuit,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER
# 01                                                                INTRODUCTION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER
# 01                                                                INTRODUCTION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER
# 01                                                                INTRODUCTION

 

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